Skip to main content

Full text of "The Temple In Man"

See other formats

The Temple in Man 

Sacred Architecture and the Perfect 


R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz 

Translated by 
Robert & Deborah Lawlor 

Illustrated by Lucie Lamy 

Table of Contents 


Translator's Foreword 7 

Preface 14 

Introduction 16 

Definitions 27 

CHAPTER I. A Hypothesis and Its Evolution 33 

CHAPTER II. Significance 

of the Crown of the Skull 48 

CHAPTER III. Reflections 

on a Philosophy of Measure 57 

CHAPTER IV. The Plan 68 

CHAPTER V. Orientation 80 

CHAPTER VI. The Temple in Man 86 

CHAPTER VII. The Crossing: Egyptian Mentality .. Ill 

CHAPTER VIII. The Egyptian Canon 

for a Standing Man 115 



Translator's Foreword 

THE APPEARANCE of this small book in 1949 created an unusually 
large academic controversy in the renowned Department of Egyp- 
tology of the College de France, Paris. An "amateur" Egyptologist 
(as the scholars must have labeled Schwaller de Lubicz) had 
presented an entirely new and radical approach for the considera- 
tion of Egyptologists, archaeologists, and historians in general, an 
approach that might have been ignored completely had it not been 
developed with such a great amount of forceful, detailed research, 
and had it not won over the complete acceptance and enthusiasm 
of several of the leading Egyptologists and archaeologists of that 
time, including Alexandre Varille and C.H. Robichon. We shall not 
go into the intriguing way in which the academic establishment cir- 
cumvented a confrontation with the challenge posed by Le Temple 
dans l'Homme; nor shall we examine how they attempted to dismiss 
this work through the well-known academic tactic of intentional 
silence. Instead, let us use these few pages to introduce this rela- 
tively little known author, then to see what might be some of the 
major themes contained in the "New Egyptology" that Schwaller 
de Lubicz's work opens before us. 

It is true that Schwaller de Lubicz was not a qualified Egyp- 
tologist by academic standards. Instead of first spending years in 
the Egyptological libraries of Europe, he, upon his first visit to 
Egypt, took up residence together with his family 1 in a small hotel 

1 His wife, Isha Schwaller de Lubicz, a specialist in Egyptian hieroglyphic language, later wrote a 
two-volume novel depicting life in ancient Egypt through the eyes of a young man who attains the 
level of temple initiation. In Her-Bak Chirk Pea (Inner Traditions. 1979) and Her-Bak: The 
Living Face of Ancient Egypt (Inner Traditions. 1978) she utilizes philosophic inspiration and 
research material from her husband's work. His stepdaughter Lucie Lamy carried out the 
exacting survey of the entire temple. 


very near the Temple of Luxor, and there he remained For more 
than fifteen years of intense, uninterrupted study of this great 
monument of the Eighteenth Dynasty of pharaonic Egypt. 
Schwaller de Lubicz was already a mature man by the time he 
arrived in Egypt. Let us therefore review briefly his earlier years. 2 

At about eighteen years of age. Rene Schwaller left his home in 
Alsace, after having completed an apprenticeship with his father in 
pharmaceutical chemistry, and went to Paris with the clearly 
formulated intention of "learning the true nature of substance." In 
addition to studying modern chemistry and physics, at this young 
age he began reading every alchemical text he could find, those of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as well as sixteenth-century 
Rosicrucian texts and the more familiar works of Paracelsus and 
Raymond Lull. For a period he became interested in painting and 
was a student of Matisse, but his main role among his contem- 
poraries was that of a philosopher of nature; thus, he influenced 

many artists in Paris at that time, such as Arp, Leger, and 
especially Prince O.V. de Lubicz Milosz, the Lithuanian mystic 
poet and statesman, who in 1919 conferred his family title on 

Schwaller as a means of expressing his admiration and gratitude. 

He served in the armed forces as a chemist during the First 

World War, and at the close of the war he published a journal, 
L'Affranchi, followed by Le Veilleur, both dedicated to social reform 
in the difficult task of implementing peace. 

During the course of his personal development, he received the 

name of "Aor," signifying "Light of the Higher Mind." He is said 
to have continued his alchemical research during this period, and 
later, while living among and guiding a contemplative community 
of students, scholars, artists, and craftsmen who had gathered 

around him at. St. Moritz in the Swiss Alps, he produced 

alchemical glass with reds and blues thought to compare with the 
stained glass of Chartres Cathedral, a feat no other chemist has 

been able to accomplish in the six hundred years since the 
cathedrals were constructed. It was during the years at St. Moritz 

that his philosophic and scientific vision coalesced around an 
understanding of the universal laws of harmony. 

2 For a more complete biographical account, see AOR, Sa vie. Son oeuvre by Isha 
Schwaller de Lubicz (Paris: La Colombe, 1963), and Serpent in the Sky: A Study of 
the Work of Schwaller de Lubicz by J. A. West (New York: Harper & Row, 1978). 

Thus, it might be said that Schwaller de Lubicz's preparation for 
Egypt was that of a philosopher, in the sense that his entire life 
constituted an intense philosophical inquiry. His unique and 
intuitive way of seeing, in combination with a technical and scien- 
tific education, gave him his extraordinary insight into the values 
and objectives motivating ancient science and theology. 

In Schwaller de Lubicz's scrupulous examination of the an and 
architecture of the Temple of Luxor, at least two concurrent levels 
are being developed at any given point. One is the study of Egypt 
as a civilization that existed in a factual geographic place and time 
(including its people, mythology, social forms, its chronological 
unfolding, its monuments and artifacts), but this level is only a 
backdrop, or support, for another Egypt which might be defined as 
a "quality of intelligence." This is Egypt as an evocation of a par- 
ticular utilization and expression of a universal power of higher 
intellection. This Egypt is outside of chronological considerations; it 
is, rather, both an ever present and a recurring possibility of con- 
sciousness. In his approach to Egypt, Schwaller de Lubicz stresses 
the view that in order to comprehend the significance of a 
heightened phase among man's varied historical expressions, we 
need to impose on ourselves the discipline of attempting to enter 
into the mentality of the people and the spirit of the time. To do so 
would mean more than just learning the language and symbols of 
the period under study; we must also awaken in ourselves a living 
inner rapport with the material being researched and identify with 
it in a potentially self-transforming manner. Of course, this ideal 
can never be fully attained, as our present consciousness is 
inevitably with us, but, on the other hand, by continuing to sift all 
of history through our present rationalized, individualized psy- 
chological mentality, we distort beyond recognition the content and 
meaning of the past. This distortion often occurs when we try to 
interpret the great mythological cultures of Egypt or Vedic India in 
particular; we tend to lose sight of the fact that these cultures were 
expressing a different mentality, and values, from ours and that 
they had a completely different understanding of the goal and pur- 
pose of life. As a result, in all of their science, art, and knowledge 
these cultures used distinct modes and methods of symbolization. 
Schwaller de Lubicz found it necessary to inquire into the nature of 


symbolization itself in order even to arrive at an understanding of 
what a heiroglyph is. This he carried out in two small books, Propos 
sur Esoterisme el Symbole (Esotericism and Symbol) and Symbole et 
Symbolique (The Symbol and the Symbolic), English translations of 
which are forthcoming from Autumn Press. 

That these ancient peoples thought differently than we do — and 
that we must understand this difference if we are to study them 
properly — seems obvious, but an example will show how difficult it 
is to put this idea into practice. Schwaller de Lubicz explains in Le 
Temple de l'Homme (Caracteres, 1957) that in the ancient temple 
civilization of Egypt, numbers, our most ancient form of symbol, 
did not simply designate quantities but instead were considered to 
be concrete definitions of energetic formative principles of nature. 
The Egyptians called these energetic principles Neters, a word 
which is conventionally rendered as "gods." 

"In considering the esoteric meaning of Number, we must 

avoid the following mistake: Two is not One and One; it 

is not a composite. It is the multiplying Work; it is the 
notion of the plus in relation to the minus; it is a new 
Unity; it is sexuality; it is the origin of Nature. Physis, the 
Neter Two. It is the Culmination (the separating moment 

of the full moon, for example); it is the line, the stick, 

movement, the way, Wotan, Odin, the Meter Thoth, Mer- 
cury, Spirit." 

Also, when the ancients considered the process of mathematical 
multiplication, their mode of calculation had a direct relationship 
with natural life processes as well as metaphysical ones. Schwaller 
de Lubicz called this mode the "principle of the crossing" (interest- 
ingly, we today continue to symbolize multiplication with the sign of a 
cross: X). This crossing was not a sterile, mental, numerical manip- 
ulation but a symbol for the process by which things enter into 
corporeal existence. All birth into nature requires a crossing of oppo- 
sites. It can be the crossing of vertical and horizontal lines, which give 
birth to the square, the first measurable surface; or male and female, 
giving birth to a new individual; or warp and weft, creating a fabric; 
or light, and darkness, giving birth to tangible forms; or matter and 
spirit, giving birth to life itself. Thus the vital linking up of the mental 
abstraction of calculation with its counterpart in natural phenomena 
gave the ancient mathematician a living and philosophic basis for his 


Similarly, these ancienl peoples did not use words as we do, that 
is, as symbols or sounds linked together, which have fixed, 
memorized associations and which we compose in sequential 
patterns within the mind. For them words were of a musical 
nature; or, more precisely, speaking was a process of generating 
sonar fields establishing an immediate vibratory identity with the 
essential principle that underlies any object or form. The pharaonic 
intelligence that Schwaller de Lubicz reveals to us was not the 
visualizing, analytical mentality we know but a sonar-intuitional 
mode. In the Egyptian temple, wrote Caspar Maspero, the human voice is 
the instrument par excellence of the 

priest and the enchanter. It is the voice which seeks afar 
the Invisibles summoned and makes the necessary objects 
into a reality. . . . But as every one (of the tones) has its 
particular force, great care must be taken not to change 
their order or to substitute one for the other . 3 
Clearly, this approach to Egyptology demands a qualitative 
change on our part if we are to enter into the pharaonic spirit. And 
this change in our thinking may offer us perspective not only on the 
vastly different intelligence of the past but on the limitations and 
excesses of our present intellect as well. 

This meticulous meditation on the stones and statuary of Luxor 
also raises far-reaching questions on the function and nature of 
history itself. In particular we begin to see that Egypt may have left 
us some essential keys to help us find our way toward an integra- 
tion of things metaphysical (spirit), mathematical (mental, scien- 
tific), musical (vibrational, living) and physiological (physical or 
material). As a civilization, Egypt certainly holds up to us a model 
of this reintegrated expression of the various planes and parts of 
our individual natures and of the cosmic life of our universe, and 
thus may prove of greater value in the spiritual crisis now con- 
fronting us than the religions of transcendence adapted from 
various ancient Eastern cultures. Egypt was not of the lineage that 
advocates transcendence and denial of material existence; it taught, 
rather, transformation. The ancient name for Egypt was "Kemi," 
meaning "Black Earth," the field of vital transformation; the 
Arabs, Schwaller de Lubicz points out, called Egypt "Al-Kemi." 

3 As quoted in Henry George Farmer, "The Music of Ancient Egypt," The New 
Oxford History of Music (London. Oxford University Press. 1957) p. 259. 


Thus we find in its very name that age-old, universal doctrine so 
often disguised in symbols and parables. This doctrine encompasses 
a vision of the principle of matter as a field of existence responsive 
to and capable of being transformed by spiritual influences brought 
about through the evolution of embodied and individualized con- 
sciousness. The West today could benefit from a philosophy of 
spiritual depth that does not suppress, diminish, or deny our intel- 
lectual and material nature but rather fulfills our commitment, to 
the meaningfulness of human life and this material expression of 
the universe. 

This lost alchemy, the pursuit, of which extends back to its flow- 
ering in ancient Egypt, can be seen as the hidden esoteric roots of 
both civilization and individuals throughout recorded time. It is this 
same alchemy which is at the core of the vision of the 
anthropocosm — of Man as being and containing within himself the 
entire universe. This vision, which is introduced by Schwaller de 
Lubicz in these pages and expanded and brought to life in his 
major work. The Temple of Man, leaves us with a single, enduring 
message: the inevitable resurrection of the spiritual essence which 
has involved itself in matter in the form of organic creative energy. 
This resurrection depends upon the transformation of the material 
universe — or to express the idea more as Egypt left it imprinted in 
the stones of Luxor: the birth of divine man (symbolized by the 
pharaoh) depends upon the transformation of the universal mother 
(materia prima). This transformation was considered the sole cosmic 
goal. Every human birth participates in this alchemy, either in an 
awakened manner through the intentional perfecting and expres- 
sion of one's higher nature, or unawakened, through the tumult 
and suffering of karmic experience leading eventually to a spiritual 
self-awareness, the temple in man. The intensification and height- 
ening of human consciousness was believed to cause biological and 
even cellular changes in the physical body of the initiate. This 
divinization of the individual body, on the microcosmic level, com- 
prised the goal and purpose of the evolution of human conscious- 
ness in general. 

Within the Temple of Egypt, psycho-spiritual growth was wed- 
ded to precise intellectual and physiological disciplines which 
acted to accelerate the influence and transformative effects of spirit 


over matter. With Egyptian alchemy we arc considering, then, a 
science in the highest sense of the word, and one very different from 
our own. It was science directed toward the embodiment of 
spiritual knowledge, toward the internalization and corporeal 
expression of intellectual and spiritual powers, rather than the 
mechanistic utilization of knowledge-power for the exploitation and 
manipulation of the earthly environment. 

The Temple was the pinnacle of the collective life, ever guiding 
the energy of the long-lived civilization of the Nile Valley toward 
the gestation of a divine humanity out of the transitory human 




The PURPOSE of this book is to present indisputable evidence that 
a symbolic directive was operative in the architecture of the Temple 
of Luxor. 

1 will examine esoteric symbolism and its significance in ancient 
Egypt in greater depth in a future book, the outline for which can 
already be established on the basis of a wealth of. documentation. 
This material now allows us to affirm that what is true for the 
Temple of Luxor is also true for other monuments from all the 
Egyptian dynasties, the symbolism evidently having been adapted 
to the particular consecration of an edifice and to the nature of the 
place where it was erected. 

The findings presented here are the fruit of eight years of unin- 
terrupted work carried out by Lucie Lamy, consisting of very 
precise surveys of the present layout and the bas-reliefs of the Tem- 
ple of Luxor, and the notation of the measurements. Clement 
Robichon, architect and head of field work operations of the French 
Institute of Oriental Archaeology, was responsible for triangulation 
and for checking all the plans. 

Triangulation was carried out by means of a Saharan-type Morin 
Tacheometer with a 14-centimeter base plate. 
Understandably, I feel moved, at the beginning of this work, to 
thank Egypt warmly for the hospitality it has shown me. In addi- 
tion, the Department of Antiquities has been very helpful and 
understanding throughout. 

For a history of the excavations of the Temple of Luxor, the 
reader is referred to G. Daressy's "Notice Explicative des Ruines 
du Temple de Luxor" published in 1893. 

A study of detail is required almost uniformly. For this reason, 


we have established a new method of surveying by means of mak- 
ing precise drawings, with an exact notation of the outlines of the 
tableaux (the various "registers" or strata of images found on the 
walls of Egyptian monuments) the figures, and their main acces- 
sories. All these data are included in the drawings in their correct 
proportions; complete records of their measurements are also 

Each drawing of an entire section, once recorded on microfilm, 
can be projected, thus enabling the exact correlation of separately 
drawn or carefully photographed texts or figure details with the 

Applying this method, a trained team of five or six people, 
guided by the principles I shall set forth in this book, could survey 
the architecture and decoration of a temple such as that of Euxor 
in six months — a task that took us eight years. 



EXCAVATIONS and philological studies supply the Egyptologist 
with abundant material for a knowledge of (he life, beliefs, and 
theology of ancient Egypt. An encyclopaedic amount of work is 
available to the researcher. Nevertheless, Pharaonic Egypt remains 
unknown in terms of its true science, its contingent psycho-spiritual 
knowledge, and its philosophical mentality. 

The funerary texts develop the myth transcribed into images, but 
it has not been possible to translate the deeper meaning of these 
images into comprehensible language. The philosophical connection 
of the accumulated data is lacking. One tends to seek in ancient 
Egypt, as well as in Babylon and other traditions of the past, what 
might be called a rational expression of esotericism. This is an 
error that arises from the prejudice that there is no esotericism, or 
that there exists an intent to conceal a certain knowledge. 

However, simple reasoning shows us that, for example, if the 
Gospels were written to teach the way of Truth and to show us 
what this Truth consists of. then the form of parables and enig- 
matic phrases chosen for this revelation would be nonsensical if its 
purpose were to conceal this Truth. The purpose of these parables 
and enigmatical phrases is not to hide anything from "he who has 
eyes to see and ears to hear," according to the evangelical formula. 
The purpose is to select those who developed the necessary under- 
standing and who are for this reason worthy of these "secrets" 
(that is to say. they will not misuse them for selfish motives). There 
was never any intent to conceal, from those thus prepared, any of 
the wisdom transmitted by texts, traditions, or monuments. The 
enigma does not lie in the thing itself but is the result of our under- 
standing, our faculties, and our intelligence, which arc not attuned 


to the mentality according to which the idea was expressed, and it 
is just this that our present education prevents us from admitting. 

However, there is a type of education that — using the vital 
organs in which the nervous flux is transformed as well as the 
centers (or "nodes") of this flux — can awaken "consciousness" of 
states that precede and transcend material forms. The West has no 
terminology for this science, and thus we must have recourse to the 
oriental languages. But the words alone are useless without the 
concepts. Ancient Egypt is in fact one of the major sources of these 
sciences: however, a true vocabulary of the Pharaonic language — or 
even a provisional one — will never be possible unless attention is 
given to those questions which we define as psycho-spiritual. The 
Egyptian symbolism can guide us in this regard and show us mean- 
ings other than the common meanings currently accepted for a 
great many words. In this way. the meaning of many texts will 
become clear. 

Rationalism is based on the data provided by the senses, and the 
senses perceive only a meager part of what is. Thus, through 
rationalism alone we can know only what is encountered through 
the senses, what is ponderable, quantitative. Yet mathematics have 
demonstrated the existence of elements that fall outside the 
physical; we must take this into account, and if rationalism brings 
us up against an impenetrable wall, in so doing it in fact teaches us 
that it has its limits and that we should seek another means of 

We express ourselves in a conventional language, and the dic- 
tionary defines and limits the meaning of each word. Therefore, we 
can understand nothing beyond what the dictionary knows. We 
write with conventional alphabetic signs that in themselves express 
only sounds; thus our alphabet is merely a mechanical means for 
composing the words in the dictionary and transmitting the 
thoughts they encompass. It may be said that the combinations of 
these letters are almost infinite: true, but the number of words is 
limited by notions already acquired. Thought can also examine 
observed phenomena and seek the causes. . . . Certainly it can, but 
as soon as it approaches the metaphysical, it can no longer find in 
our languages and forms of writing the means of expressing itself: 
abstract ideas, formulated in words for which we lack the concepts, 
are objectified and lose their significance. 


It follows from these observations that either there exists only a 
concrete world perceptible to the senses, or we lack a faculty that 
would enable us to grasp the abstract, without having to concretize 
through the imagination. The process is ingrained in us, in accor- 
dance with a mode that always leads toward the quantitative 
definition. This is the inverse of the Egyptian mentality. 

If an unknown phenomenon appears, it is already the concreti- 
zation of a cause that was abstract for us. Instead of searching out 
the nature of this cause, we obey our reductionist tendency and 
restrict both cause and phenomenon to the realm of the mechanical 
mentality. We investigate nothing deeply; we pull everything down 
to our own limits. However, a simple image proves to us that there 
is a way we can express ourselves without limiting a notion to a 
defined form, and transcribe our thought without imposing our own 
mentality on those who will read this image. We have gotten into 
the habit of reducing everything in Time and Space: this is the 
rational habit. An image, on the other hand, gives access to a world 
of qualities and functions. For instance, if we say "a man walks," 
we see a man walking, but we sec him in a limited way: we imagine 
only the fact of moving or walking. We can then place that fact in 
the past, present, or future and all the gradations of these tenses: 
we situate this movement in Time and Space. If, on the other hand, 
we see an image that represents a man walking (or simply lines 
depicting a man) we no longer imagine him, we no longer situate 
him; he is there, it is the function that interests us, and the quality 
of that function. We can then paint this man green: it will no 
longer be solely the function of walking with one's legs that is 
evoked — this movement could also signify vegetation or growth. But 
to our reason, walking and growing are two different functions, 
while in reality there is an abstract connection between them: it is 
movement outside consideration of Time, or pathway, or specific 

If we wish to define this movement, we immediately reduce it in 
Time and Space, whereas there is no further need to define the feel- 
ing of motion (whether walking or growing); the image — the 
symbol — acts as definition, and we can in fact experience this con- 
dition (unconsciously become one with it, without any reasoning) 
just as any child would looking at pictures. 


Thus, the representation — the symbol — is our only true means of 
transmitting an esoteric meaning, which, in alphabetic writing, we 
have to seek in parable, or, possibly metaphor or allegory. The 
Chinese mentality is characteristic of this transcribed symbolic 
mentality: the idea is circumscribed but not named. Something of 
this mentality, which we encounter in the Egypt of the pharaohs, 
has remained among the peoples of the Middle East: the indirect 
question and answer. 

Symbolic representation and imagistic writing are the pure 
hieratic forms of esoteric expression. Through symbolism, and 
through it alone can we read the thought of the Ancients. It is only 
through the symbolical that we will be able to coordinate the 
known elements of this great civilization and that the writing may 
take on its true meaning. 

With regard to this mode of expression, I shall quote Ampere, 
Essai sur la Philosophic des Sciences (vol. 2, pp. 103-104): 

"These rites, these dogmas, often conceal ideas once 
reserved for a small number of initiates: and the secret of 

these ideas, though buried with them, can be redis- 
covered by those who study in depth all the types of 

teachings remaining of the ancient beliefs and the 
ceremonies they prescribed. Hence, a science, given the 
name of 'the Symbolic' (the name I shall retain for it), 
proposes to uncover what was hidden behind such diverse 

I shall explain more precisely what I mean by the word symbol in 
the chapter on "Definitions" and in the "Summary of Principles." 

We also see in the symbol the only means of making a connec- 
tion between the "oriental" mentality and the "occidental" men- 
tality, according to the basic distinction currently accepted. But 
pharaonic Egypt — which is, in my opinion, the main source of 
Mediterranean civilization — is in some ways closer to us than is the 
Orient. Its mentality is positive, and its expression is symbolic, to con- 
vey a form of esotericism that does not differ from the others, since 
Wisdom cannot vary if it is real. 

This symbolic aspect has been completely neglected in Egyp- 
tology. It is the proof of its existence, and of the directive stemming 
from it in the pharaonic expression, that I find and present with 
the Temple of Luxor. 


The strangely irregular plan of this temple prompted me to 
investigate the causes of these irregularities. Since this architec- 
tural conception was executed in several phases along the temple's 
longitudinal axis, hitherto the simple explanation of attributing 
utilitarian purposes to successive builders has been adopted. In my 
opinion, only more profound reasons could have inspired these 
extraordinary constructions, which certainly, on account of the very 
effort required, could not have been consecrated to inconsequential 
ideas. Many positive proofs and experiments now confirm the 
correctness of this way of thinking. 

Obviously, no one would build such monuments, and in such 
great numbers, over thousands of years, for uncultivated peasants. 
This work is of necessity that of an elite, and, even more remark- 
ably, an elite that never ceased to renew itself, an elite that seems 
to have been uniquely endowed with a wealth of scientific knowl- 
edge, including an understanding of the laws of Life. 

What, then, was this inexhaustible source, and what means so 
powerful and so stable assured such continuity? 

We are dealing here, not with an evolution of science, but rather, 
on the contrary, with an immutable basis: for the existence of a 
language and a form of writing that were already complete from 
the time of the earliest dynasties of the historical period seems to 
confirm this. What we sec is not the beginnings of research, but the 
application of a Knowledge already possessed. 


First of all, our team set out to survey the general plan of the 
temple, then all its details with the greatest precision possible 
without concerning ourselves with an explanation of the 1,001 
irregularities observed. I shall explain the outcome of this work in 
the following pages. 

The first important thing, affording the true explanation of all 
the idiosyncrasies, was the discovery of axes drawn on the platform 
of the covered temple. Aside from the axes drawn on the ground in 
the sanctuary of the barque, it was of course indispensable to have 
an original median axis, on which an initial general plan could be 


based. This axis is marked under the platform, and at any rate it is 

The study of these axes shows that each correspond to a pur- 
pose: each axis is a theme that rules the direction of the construc- 
tions related to it. In fact, each wall was built in relation to one or 
another of these three axes, with no regard for the obvious disorder 
that could ensue. Thus we have here a discovery that is extremely 
important for studying the architecture of the temples and for 
deciphering the meaning of the pictures and texts traced on their 
walls. We are dealing here with an orientation that is spatial as 
well as ideological. 

This concerns the architectural basis, which happens to be 
indissolubly linked with the governing idea expressed in the dedica- 
tion of this temple. We then looked for what could be the charac- 
teristic symbol of this consecration, a symbol that should conform 
to the dedication. 

We began by finding it in the strange paving of the covered tem- 
ple. This paving in fact makes no sense if it does not have a pur- 
pose. The paving stones — none of which is cut in a curve — are 
sometimes placed to give the effect of curves: their apparent dis- 
order curiously resembles a Byzantine mosaic from which the colors 
have been removed. They contain several shapes that attract the 
attention: for instance, the curve of an eye outlined by large blocks; 
the shape of an ear, as well as the channel of the trachea, outlined 
by a series of juxtaposed slabs. We find in room 20 a bas-relief 
representing the same face as that formed by the elements of the 
paving. Obviously, this would not afford a definite conclusion; but 
the canon proportions of the profile and the head, and of the head 
in relation to the body, are present. Here the Golden Number 
comes to our aid. It controls all vegetable and animal growth. The 
following pages arc based on these explanations. 

The outline of a human skeleton — traced according to anthropo- 
metrical methods and very carefully constructed, bone by bone — 
was superimposed on the general plan of the temple. The head (full 
face for the skeleton) is located exactly in the sanctuaries of the 
covered temple; the sanctuary of the barque of Amun is in the oral 
cavity; the clavicles are marked by walls; the chest is located in the 
first hypostyle of the covered temple and ends with the temple's 


I> MJ’I I 

( i 'I I i i\ M >1 Of \MI \ 

[ ! li i mi Rl R VMM " 

H\ I' MM1 

• • 
» * 
• • 
* • 
* • 

I I HMM ; < MT ki 

Fig. 1. General plan of the Temple of Luxor; survey completed in 1948. 


Fig. 2. Projection of the plan of the Temple of Luxor on a human skeleton. 


platform. The abdomen is represented by the peristyle court, and 
the pubis is located exactly at the door separating this peristyle 
from the colonnade of Amun. This marvelous colonnade is, in fact, 
dedicated to the femurs, the thighs; the knees are at the site of the 
gate in front of which sit the two colossi, marking the entrance to 
this colonnade. The tibias are in the court of Ramses, framed by 
the colossi, whose legs (tibias) are particularly pronounced. The lit- 
tle toe of our skeleton falls exactly at the northwest angle of the 
pylon. One might be tempted to think this skeleton had been con- 
structed to be superimposed on the temple. But any skeleton, as 
long as it is harmonious (like the one represented here) can be pro- 
jected thus on the plan of the temple and will coincide with it. 
Moreover, all the proportions of the skeleton may be checked 
against the actual measurements of the temple. 

For my report, it was necessary to have recourse to the Egyptian 
canon; I have in this regard devoted a chapter to a subject that has 
never been dealt with until now — the importance the Ancients 
accorded the crown of the skull (cava). 

This crown of the skull, marked off in Egyptian figuration by a 
headband, a diadem, a headdress or crown — is a veritable revela- 
tion with regard to psycho-spiritual knowledge of the Ancients. 
This is made clear by the placement of the principal organs of the 
Intellect and of all the control mechanisms of life in the various 
sanctuaries, whose figurations, texts, and architecture specify their 

The Temple of Luxor is indisputably devoted to the Human 
Microcosm. This consecration is not merely a simple attribution: 
the entire temple becomes a book explaining the secret functions of 
the organs and nerve centers. 1 have had to limit myself here solely 
to demonstrating the symbolism that directs the temple's architec- 
ture, without entering into a study of this magnificent, book: my 
aim is to draw the attention of those who are interested and to 
place archaeologists on the alert. If it were to adopt this point of 
view, Egyptology would no longer be a sterile science. 

I have inserted a chapter giving the general ideas of a philosophy 
of Measures — not that they enter in as a proof of symbolism, but 
because it is Measure that enabled me to discover the method of 
applying the symbolic. It is also the purpose of this explanation to 


indicate the mentality of the Master Builders and the ancient Egyp- 
tians in general. This study of Measures has also shown us 
evidence of their astronomical science (I have numerous proofs of 
this and shall have occasion to discuss it at greater length else- 
where) as well as their undeniable knowledge of geodesy. 

If, in my report, each chapter is presented as an island connected 
to the others only by a governing line of thought, this too corres- 
ponds to the pharaonic mentality. 

The subject under discussion is so vast that I had the choice of 
writing a lengthy book — which would have greatly delayed 
publication — or a very concise outline rendered intelligible by com- 
plementary figures and diagrams. 

All the data relating to my thesis have been checked rigorously 
and may be verified at the site. 

The mentality that directs me — that I attempt to convey — will of 
course be opposed by the rationalism that dominates modern 
thought. I am concerned with discovering the thought of the 

ancients, and I feel that in the investigation of Causes there are 

three possible ways: rationalism, framed and limited by matter; 

pure faith, which is a perfect way. as long as this faith is absolute 
and all philosophical speculation is eliminated; and third, the 
philosophical way, but this leads nowhere unless the means 
employed are adapted to the goal. These are the means that 

ancient Egypt teaches us through its mentality and symbolism. 

To conclude, I shall again draw Egyptologists attention to the 
two methods of inscription that. I call transposition and transparency. 
These constitute a new and very important key for the study of 

texts and figurations. It is necessary to note that there is, in trans- 

position and transparency, no intent to conceal a teaching; on the 
contrary, their purpose is to explain vital functions symbolically. 

Thus a naos (a proportional and decorated shrine intended to hold 

a sacred object), a barque (a god's ceremonial boat), a linen chest 
are not simply cult items or objects for daily use; they also repre- 
sent organs and functions of life, man being taken as the summa- 
tion of all the possibilities immanent in the Universe, However, the 
Egyptians apparently considered the organs of the human body — 
images of the divine universal organism — too sacred to be used 
directly as symbols; for the types most specifically representative of 


the development of the organs were chosen from among the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms. In fact, an animal or a plant, as the type 
of a given organism or a given function, is fully characteristic, in its 
entire way of life, of the rhythm of this organ or this function. 

Moreover, this opens to us the possibility of a vital classification 
of fauna and flora, each species or type becoming a stage of the 
genesis of which man, as supreme creature, is the summation, the 
Temple of Universal Life. 



In ORDER that no confusion remain in the determination of my 
concepts, I shall begin by defining some of the words used in this 

The terms "cerebral consciousness" and "'cerebral intelligence" 
plus the adjective "vital" — defining vital function, vital logic, etc. — 
are used in a special new sense. 


CONSCIOUSNESS — If a Cause-Origin of the Universe is admitted, it is 
of necessity unique. However, if reason imposes on us the idea of 
an indivisible, i.e.. quantity-less, unity, the idea of this unity eludes 
our point of view as creatures forming part of this Universe, a con- 
sequence of the unique Cause. 

This unity exists for us only if comparison is possible; but com- 
parison signifies consciousness and duality. Thus, creation is 
accomplished entirely between the numbers One and Two; and 
duality is the basic characteristic of the created Universe. This 
duality is the principle of sexuality. Duality implies comparison 
with a series of phenomena which produce cerebral consciousness. 
Unity creates by "looking at itself"; it is the fallen angel of the 
Judeo-Christian tradition and also the Adamic error in the Genesis 
of Moses. We may call this Unity God or Unpolarized Energy, in 
that this Unity is indivisible, and God, the Creator or Polarized 
Energy, insofar as it is Unity conscious of itself. 

Therefore, the Universe is only consciousness and presents only an 
evolution of consciousness, from beginning to end, which is the return 


to iis Cause . 1 The aim of every "initiatory" religion is to teach the 
way that leads to this the ultimate merging. 

Cerebral consciousness, which is peculiar to the animal kingdom 
and the human animal, requires the faculty of registering notions 
that are only acts of comparison, and this faculty is located in the 
cerebral cortex and the double cerebral lobes. 

On the other hand, understanding — Intellect or Reason 2 — is the 
faculty of synthesis in the coordination of ideas and is functionally- 
centered in the pituitary and pineal bodies (hypophysis and 
epiphysis). This is what the ancients called the "intelligence of the 
heart," because its impulse is manifested through the solar plexus 
(the sympathetic nerve), the emotive center, and its direct physical 
reactions upon the heart. 

LIFE — Various definitions have been given for the term "life," the 
best of which seems to me to be "the faculty of assimilating a food 
and transmuting it in the nature of the living being." Any ger- 
minating seed — or any seed capable of germinating — is a cause or 
impulse of life; and gestation is life. But when the living being, 
whether vegetable or animal, achieves its aim, which is a new seed, 
its organism deteriorates in that it is a complex generating the seed 
(male) or gestating the being (female); but death does not 
extinguish all life in the component parts of this individual. Putre- 
faction makes from them new lives, animal or vegetable. To be 
sure, it is always a matter of assimilation, but to another rhythm, 
with another character. 

This definition is philosophically true; but I propose another one, 
which — applied to everything, including minerals — is more correct 
because it is more general: "Life is the faculty of reaction." Everything 
in the Universe tends toward inertia, or absence of reaction. The 
proof of this inertia, which thermodynamics seeks in "absolute 
zero," has never been given, nor will it ever be, because absolute 
inertia can only be attained through the cessation of the formed 

'Evolution of an "innate consciousness" toward psychological consciousness, 
which is "consciousness of the innate consciousness," the first stage toward a con- 
sciousness freed from physical contingencies. 

"Higher reason and Saint Thomas's Intellectus. 


matter or "thing." This would be the moment the thing ceased to exist. 

Everything "existing" is capable of reaction, insofar as it has 
"weight," that is, fixed or specific energy. 

The vital phenomenon is the faculty of reacting, and to manifest 
itself this reaction requires a resistance of the same nature as the 

Thus, the living stomach produces the juices necessary for diges- 
tion, because of the signal (or resistance) of the thing to be 
digested, in exactly the same way the anvil (resistance) produces 
reaction, or suppression of weight (elasticity), in the hammer (ac- 
tivity) that strikes it. Whether in the field of chemistry, biology, or 
mechanics, the Law remains the same: there has to be an action, a 
resistance of the same nature, and the reaction or effect. The whole is 
the vital phenomenon. 

I draw a parallel with "vital logic" and "cerebral" or "equa- 
tional" — that is to say, syllogistic — "logic." The latter is simple 
mechanical logic, quantitative logic; the comparison of two ele- 
ments defines a third, which is a quantitative equation. 

On the other hand, vital logic is purely functional and quantita- 
tively unforeseeable, because of the multitude of elements that can 
enter into the elaboration of the result, since here it is a question of 
gestation. Vital logic applies to the reactive or vital function. It has 
its exact law, which is the law of genesis, the supreme natural expres- 
sion of which is given by the phases of the embryonic and fetal 
genesis of man. 3 

3 A few medical quotations — from La Medecine Morphologique by A. Thooris 

G. Doin, 1937), p.72-73 — will explain my point of view. They relate also to the 
basis of the subject treated in the following pages. 

"Geoffroy Saint Hilaire was the first to show that human skulls have, 
at a given moment in their development, a number of points of ossifica- 
tion equal to the number of pieces shown by the skulls of fish. . . . 

Before achieving its complete development, the fetus passes through a 
scries of forms that recall final forms of less perfect animals. 

"Serres generalizes the analogy: 'The transitory aspects of a higher 
animal, in the course of its development, reproduce the permanent 
aspects of the organ among adults deemed lower.' 

"Algassiz goes further still . . . 'Primitive animals are prophetic images 
of present embryos, which are like miniatures of them . . . 

And, later: "If I find in an embryo, at a certain stage in its develop- 


SYMBOL AND SYMBOLISM — The meaning currently accepted for 
the word symbol always implies a conventional nature. A figure or a 
sign represents, by analogy or convention, a given idea. 

To conform with the true meaning of the symbol in ancient 
Egypt, we ought to use the Egyptian term Medu-Neteru, the Greek 
translation of which, "heiroglyphs," distorts the Egyptian meaning. 
Medu-Neteru are the Neters, or the principles conveyed by a sign. 

To me, the word symbol signifies the thing itself or the materi- 
alized idea that it evokes; it does not represent the idea by analogy 

There is a reality (that is to say, a cause with an ineluctable 
effect) in the Medu-Neters or symbols — as in the Christian image of 
the Cross, the statue of the Holy Virgin, the gestures and words of 
the Sacrament of the Mass, in the life or legend of the Saint from 
whom the religion takes its name. 

Every image, however primitive it may be, leaves its mark. It 
evokes a memory, and only that which one has known or lived can 
be remembered. One puts into the image this "something" of 
oneself. The image then no longer represents this memory; it is the 
memory that is transplanted in the image. 

In this sense, even the conventional symbol becomes "real" — like 
an officer's badge of rank, a "symbolic" sword, the robes of high 

It is certainly not the habit that makes the monk; but oblige the 
monk to wear secular clothing and something in his attitude will 
change, and thereby something in his inner disposition. 

In every instance the symbol — even if it be chosen totally 
arbitrarily — makes its mark, because of necessity it evokes a complex 
of thoughts that are projected into it; and it is this projection that 
then confronts us. 

This manner of conceiving the symbol opens the door to a theme 
that would require lengthy development. 

When I use the word symbol, for lack of another, more precise 
word. I am thinking of the natural symbol, and of the figuration 
that is the Idea projected into the thing represented. 

merit, an organ that it no longer shows in its adult stage, I must find 
this organ in an adult lower animal whose development was arrested at 
the stage considered embryonic."' 


Inversely, in the pharaonic sense, the natural thing or being is 
none other than the materialization of the Idea of which it is the 
symbol. The bird living in the air has an aerial nature; through its 
habits (life, nourishment, method of hunting, affinities and 
emnities. character, mode of assimilation, etc.), it becomes the 
incarnation of a function, of a stage in the universal genesis, and 
finally, of an Idea. Thus every natural thing is the incarnation of a 
principle; it is the principle's symbol. 

Summary of Principles 

LIFE is the faculty of reacting. 

This formula extends the definition of Life to include minerals. 
We do not distinguish inorganic bodies from organic bodies so as to 
accord life only to the latter. We admit that there are organized 
beings and others which are not yet organized; but the latter bear, 
in their characteristics, (for example, chemical affinity), the ele- 
ments that give an impetus for future organization. This, however, 
will not take place in a continuous fashion, but through the 
necessary destruction of forms for the purpose of "rebirth" — so to 
speak — in higher states. It is not the form that is transmitted, but 
the "permanent" moment of the Substance. This permanent 
moment (the Egyptian ka) registers the experience of the transitory 
form. Thus Life is, in all things, a ternary complex formed by an 
active Cause against a passive resistance that is nonetheless reactive 
in turn. This reaction is the apparent effect, and the whole is the 
vital phenomenon. 

INTELLIGENCE has a double nature: Intellect, or Reason, is direct 
Intelligence, beyond all comparison. It is the Intelligence of the 
human being who, incarnating all the possibilities of the Universe, 
knows this Universe without having to reason it. On the other hand. 


cerebral intelligence requires comparison and constitutes psy- 
chological consciousness, which distinguishes man from animal. 
This cerebral intelligence is that of the "Adamic" human being 
fallen into relative nature. 

THE SYMBOL In our modern languages there is no word that 
designates the exact meaning of Symbol, as it was conceived by the 
Ancients. This is why I should like to replace the word symbol with 
the word Medu-Neter, which conveys the "signs that bear the 
Neters" ("Neter" signifying the Principle or the Idea in the 
Platonic sense). 

For me, a plant or an animal, for example, is a symbol of a whole 
collection of vital elements crystallized in that plant or animal, 
which can be what it is only through the conditions and circum- 
stances causing its birth. Each is the manifestation of an Idea and 
constitutes a link in the evolution of Consciousness, from the 
original Verb up to the conscious return into the Cause. Each 
natural symbol may be considered as a word in a phrase that, in 
reuniting all words, alone can define that abstraction which is 
called Cod. 



A Hypothesis and Its Evolution 

THE ARCHITECTURE of the Temple of Luxor, is, at first glance, 
disconcerting. From the southern sanctuary to the north pylons, the 
axis never ceases to deviate. There is scarcely a regular shape in the 
plan; what seems square is rhomboidal; the inter-columnal spacing 
increases occasionally in the direction of the sanctuary, thus com- 
pensating for the effect of perspective. Moreover, the entire con- 
struction was carried out in several phases. The Temple of Luxor 
could be called a Parthenon, based on its fundamental kinship with 
the Parthenon of Athens. Its preferred designation has been that of 
a "theogamic" temple; but it is in fact, because of the deeper 
meaning of its consecration, the true Parthenon — that is to say. the 
temple devoted to the spiritual conception of Man.' 

Although they never sacrifted anything for aesthetics but con- 
formed solely to the reality of the Symbol, the pharaonic builders 
always achieved masterpieces of harmony — even in intentional 
deformities and ugliness — through symbolic and geometrical exac- 

Nothing is sensual for them; and this shocks our Western sense 
of aesthetics. Everything is solely didactic, of an esoteric nature; it 
is a teaching for the Understanding, for pure Intellect, a teaching 
that cannot be described in explicit terms. 

We have too many proofs showing that nothing in their work is 
the result of negligence, chance, or personal whim, for us not to 
look for the meaning hidden behind apparent disorder. To avoid 
this research would be to miss the purpose of archaeology, which is 

'Parthenogenesis is taken here in the sense of "creation," and not in the 
"zoological" sense of being at one point male, then female, as is the case with the 
androgynous mollusks. 



to learn what the Past has to teach us and not to impose our own 
conceptions on the Ancients. 

Starting from this premise. I have tried — with neither prejudice 
nor obstinacy in my hypotheses — to understand little by little what 
the observed fact might show us. 

Allowing myself to be guided by the Gothic tradition (which 
bases the cathedral on the symbol of the Cross, and even occasion- 
ally bends the apse in memory of the bowed head of the crucified 
Lord), I first pictured, as the plan of the base, the outline of a 
human figure to explain the strange deformation of the architec- 
tural plan of the temple of Luxor. Does the plan of the Basilica of 
Saint Peter in Rome, completed by Bernini's colonnades, not repre- 
sent the shape of a key? 

Similarly, a recumbent figure such as the reborn Osiris (placing 
one foot in front of the other) could very well have been placed over 
the plan of the Temple of Luxor. The feet would have been the 
pylons, the knees the two colossi seated at the entrance of the 
colonnade of Amun (the colonnade representing the thighs), the 
peristyle court being the abdomen and the hypostyle entrance the 
chest (hati), the head being located in the covered sanctuary. The 
proportions of a body thus placed over the plan corresponded 

However, only the proportions indicated by the construction jus- 
tify such a proposition. I found in my supposition an eminent pre- 
decessor in Etienne Drioton . 2 

If his particular hypothesis, which consists of seeing the image of 
an Oudja eye in the plan of the sanctuaries of Medamud, has not 
been borne out subsequently (the Egyptian temple is often called 
the "eye" of God), his intuition was nonetheless remarkable, as we 
shall see in the case of the Temple of Luxor. 

A recumbent, reborn Osiris was. however, only a pretty image, 
in keeping with our simplistic western understanding of the symbol. 
Pharaonic thought, more profound, allows for no fantasy in the 
expression of the living symbol. 

The parallel between an Egyptian temple and our cathedrals was 
not suggested solely by the search for the same conception in the 

2 Etienne Drioton. "La Protection Magique de Thebes a l'Epoque des Ptolemees," 
in Bulletin d'Ethnographie, No. 23 (1931). 


symbolism of the ground plan. H. Schafer believed he had found in 
the Temple of Luxor the origin of the canon of the plan of the 
Greek basilica and its derivatives. 3 

But in Christian architecture the basilica must not be confused 
with the cathedral viewed in the sense of "center of higher 

teaching." Karnak is the synthelic royal temple: Luxor is the cathedral 
of "The Great Teaching." Moreover, the layout of this temple is 
indeed that which we encounter again in the canon of the Gothic 
cathedral, except that the two pylons replace the two towers. 

The general plan of a cathedral corresponds to an exact canon: 
two towers; a narthex; a nave — triple and with seven windows, as a 
rule — on the walls of which the stations of the Cross are later 
drawn. Then comes the transept, and then the entrance proper to 

the Sanctuary, the remainder being reserved for the faithful. 

The choir, separated from the transept by the rood screen, is 
itself divided according to the importance of the form of worship, 
the altar being the table for the daily sacrifice, and the repository 

bearing the Sacred Host in the barque of its silver crescent. In 

those chinches that are privileged to celebrate the papal mass, the 
bishop's throne is behind the altar, hidden from the public; it is 
there that he celebrates the Sacrament, as in the Holy of Holies (as 
is the case in the Orthodox cult) . 

In the Temple of Luxor we find an identical layout (see fig. 1): 
two pylons, the court of Ramses as the narthex, the double row of 
seven high columns with open corollas forming the naves with two 
subsidiary naves whose lateral walls are decorated with bas-reliefs 
representing the procession of the barque. After the nave, with its 
two rows of seven columns, the peristyle extends east and west, 
forming a cross (the transept); 4 then comes the covered temple, 
whose parallelism with the cathedral's choir is striking. 

The High Altar, represented here by the naos containing the 
sacred barque (symbolizing the crescent moon), is located 
in the choir proper, room 6 (fig. 3), rooms 4 and 8 taking the place 

3 H. Schafer, "Die angebliche Basilikenhalle des Temples von Luksor. Gedanken 
zur Geschichte des Agyptischen Tempelbaus" in Zeitschrift fur agyptische Sprache. vol. 
61 (1926) pp. 32-57. 

4 A more learned etymological meaning has been preferred for tram saeptum: 
"beyond the boundary." The fact that the nave is septuple in its length is 


of the front part of the choir. Originally the chamber of the naos 
was not connected with the rooms to the south. 3 

The lateral rooms 9, 2, 10 and 14, 3, 15, 17, linked by room 12, 

recall the ambulatory surrounding the choir; the twenty-seven small 

chapels opening onto the aforementioned rooms would correspond 
to the "radiating chapels." Finally, the central southern sanctuary 

1, where stood the statue of Amun, is located at the site of the 

apsidal chapel. 

\\l' wit \ . 

* I I 

• • • • *900 

$ & $ § 

& S 4 S ,g g 

Ws i \vi"\ . 

Fig. 3. Plan of the covered temple showing the con- 
struction along the axis of Amun. 

5 This was correctly noted by P. LaCall in "Le Plan du Temple de Louxor" in 
Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, vol.18, no.2 (1941). 


Ancient tradition demanded that the choir be separated from the 
transept by a rood screen, and the ambulatory itself might be 
enclosed by decorative work such as wrought-iron railings, tombs, 
etc. However, at Luxor, there is no connection — except for the 
central door leading into room 4 — between what I have identified 
as the choir and the rest of the temple: chapels 19, 20, and 21 are 
connected only to the great hypostyle hall. Thus, it is these latter 
rooms, as well as rooms 8, 18, and 22, that might constitute the 
"rood screen" of the cathedral. 

This rood screen includes stairways to the right and left. In the 
Temple of Luxor there exists a stairway to the west, and certain 
signs show that there seems to have been a second stairway to the 
east originally. 

All these elements enable us to connect the Temple of Luxor 
with the Gothic cathedral. 

Having completed the survey, not only of scenes and of each 
figure but ultimately of every stone in the walls (taking into 
account rectifications to be made in the case of accidental disjunc- 
tion of the blocks), I was struck by the strange position shown by 

certain paving stones, because of the way in which they were cut 
(figs. 4 and 5). 

The survey having been completed, the whole revealed, in a 
startling manner, the shapes of an eye. an ear, a mouth, and a 
headband, placed in such a way as to reproduce a face seen in 
profile, excluding the crown of the skull. 

Now, for many years, we had undertaken the study of the 

proportions of the human body, in the spirit of the ancient Egyp- 
tians, and we had examined their way of thus transcribing its 
cosmic meaning, in the manner later adopted by Delphes. Did not 
Moses, who was reared in Egypt, affirm that "man is made in 

God's image"? Man is thus considered as a summation of the 

I revised my earlier hypothesis. If the head revealed by the pav- 
ing were truly a human profile, and if, denuded of the crown of the 


Fig. 4. Survey of the southern part of the covered 
temple showing the irregularity of the pavement. 

Fig. .5. The pavement shown as a mosaic. 


head, it had a given size, then the different parts of the temple and 
each figure must have absolutely defined proportions and each 
important point in the body must of necessity be placed at key 
points of the plan — which was verified. 

This becomes proof of the projection in the temple, not of a 
defined image, but of Microcosmic Man. 

Though the sex organ is not represented in the architecture itself 
(no excavations having been carried out in this area), we find it in 
a bas-relief located at point N (see fig. 1), around the opening that 
would represent the urethra of the symbolized man. Here is drawn 
a Min (the god Amun in the form of a figure bound as a mummy 
from the chest downwards and with erect phallus indicating the 
generative function). The Min is not just found in the place cor- 
responding to it; it also corresponds to the very principle of the temple 
(fig. 6). 

From averages established from measurements of the human 
body, it has been proved that the navel divides the total height of 
the body in the proportion of $ to 1. This formula is applied to 
classical Greek sculpture, and in Egypt as well, except that here the 
crown of the head is excluded." In the Min in question, the phallus 
is not at its natural place, but exactly at the place of the navel, the 
maternal attachment. 

Let us recall, in this regard, the significance of the value $ and 
the geometric structure that defines it. 

The value $, or the Golden Number, corresponds to the propor- 
tion ; when C = a + b. 

b a 

There is only one number that corresponds to this proposition, 
and it can be translated as ^ * 1 =1.61803395. . . 

The geometrical function that solves this problem is, in its mul- 
tiplicative form, £ = ^ 
b =1; a =$ ;c=l +4r= 1-61803395. .. 

All the constructions of $ that can also be found as the starting 
point in Byzantine basilicas and in cathedrals always have as a 
basis the right triangle whose sides are 1 and 2 and whose hypot- 
enuse, v 3, is the diagonal of a double square. 

6 For a study of these proportions, see chapter VIII. 
7 See chapters II and VIII. 


Fig. 6. Luxor. Kamutef situated at N on the plan. The superimposition of the outline 
of divisional $ (fig. 8) gives the location of the phallus at the place of the navel. 



Fig. 7. Geometrical construction of ‘l (multiplacative 

The following formula gives the same geometric function in the 
divisional form; 

; = 0 . 61 803395 . . . 

c. - A h - 1 a _L 


Fig. 8. Geometrical construction of 'f (form based on 

If the unity is a, we thus get the Golden Number ( $ ) for b, and 
■I’ + 1 — that is, $ 2 — for c. 

Occasionally one hears this remark; "The Golden Number can 
be found everywhere." This is incorrect. But if practice and usage 
have established a balanced form that is pleasing or has shown 
itself to be particularly stable, a function of the Golden Number 
may be sought there. No one thought of this number in establishing 
this form, any more than a plant would think of it, or a woman 
carrying a child. 


Tht Golden Number is not the product of mathematical imagination but the 
natural principle of the laws of equilibrium. 
Figure 6 shows the superimposition of the dividing function of < * ) 
over the Kamutef, or bound figure. We see that the phallus, instead 
of being located at half the height of the body, is in the place of the 
navel. 8 

Thus, we are dealing with a Kamutef whose known meaning of 
"maternal bull" signifies the primordial seed acting on itself, or 
self-conception, spiritual conception of man without the maternal 
woman — that is, "Adamic creation." 

It is then necessary to ascertain the relationships between the 
parts of the architecture — and the head represented on the floor — 
and the proportions that the body must have. For we cannot trace 
out this head in profile any which way to complete the design 
shown by the pavement. The head is constructed according to very 
precise proportions, determined here by the walls (see fig. 9). 

In addition, I had to follow the openings or doors corresponding 
to the different passages found in the human head. 

For all these processes, I was guided by the "keys" that the Mas- 
ter Builders carefully set into the walls and the floor. 

Here a digression is in order. I should like to point out that al- 
ways, in the walls and on the floor of Egyptian temples, there are 
certain "keys" that are guides for measures. These "little bits of 
stone," set into certain blocks, are too easily attributed to sculptors' 
errors. The error lies in interpreting them thus. Each stone has a value 
and a significance, I found a great number of these "keys" that must 
have been set in place at the time the construction was assembled; 
in fact certain keys are cut in such a way that they could not have 
been set in place at any other time. 

I point out these facts to Egyptologists and archaeologists, that 
they may make some unusual observations. It is an act of vandal- 
ism to touch any stone without having first situated it precisely on 
the plan, photographed it, and in any event measured it carefully. 

8 The sex organ divides the height of a man, including the crown of the skull into 
two equal parts. In fact, the sex organ exists only for natural man — that is to say, 
man exiled from earthly Paradise and possessing his own judgment. The sym- 
bolism is thus respected (see chap. II) . 


This precision in measurements enabled me to relate the figures 
of the bas-reliefs on one partition with those on the other side of 
the same wall; here is where transposition completes an idea. I call 
this process "transposition" because the complements of an idea set 
forth in a given room, in which it is developed, are given in another 
room, dedicated to another development. The accord between the 
two themes develops through a common element and creates a 
sequence that explains the true (esoteric) meaning as a logical con- 
clusion. It often happens that the reading of texts and symbols on 
one wall has meaning only through this indirect superimposition 
through the wall . 9 This superimposition, which should be studied 
precisely in its minutest details, is repeated for hieroglyphs as well 
as figures (persons, attributes, and accessories). 

Transposition must not be confused with what I call "trans- 
parency." I shall have occasion later to note two typical cases, one 
of transposition, the other of transparency. 

In the case of transparency, if the wall were made of glass one 
could see, for example, drawn on the verso, a sign or a figure that 
fills a gap on the recto. A naos or barque may remain empty and 
be only a container whose contents are on the other side of the 
wall, in a room where its theme is specially treated. In the case of 
transparency, the stone goes through the wall to mark an indirect con- 
nection between the two images . 10 

In these two processes we are dealing with a symbolic inscription 
of a vitally precise nature and not with an ordinary, readily 
decipherable cryptography. 

Reading this symbolic inscription requires a philosophical direc- 
tive and a searching study of the theme in the hidden meaning of 
the myth. This method of teaching could be called an "architec- 
tural parable." 

In attempting to interpret certain "oversights" in a figuration, 
most people have ascribed them to negligence. Henceforth they will 
realize the incredible precision that the Egyptians applied to the 
composition of their bas-reliefs. 

I hold that every stone in the walls of the covered temple was cut 

9 I say "indirect"' to avoid confusion with superimposing the outlines of figures on 
the same scene, which has a purpose similar to that of transparency. 

10 See figure 41. p. 101. 


according to completely predetermined measurements; similarly, 
the setting of each stone was chosen with exact knowledge of the 
scene to be depicted there, the joints being located in such a way as 
to cut — intentionally — head, feet, hands, attributes, etc. (see fig. 10). 
All this is part of hieroglyphic writing. Epigraphy alone will never 
reveal the secret teaching of the Sages. One must learn to read the 

The plans and figures shown here demonstrate better than any 
explanation the reality of this figuration of Man as the basis of the 
architecture of this temple. However, this representation — which 
can be verified through the proportions indicated — is still only an 
image. The intention of the Master Builders far surpasses a simple 
figuration. Since we are dealing with Man, and since the architec- 
ture takes into account the channels and vital centers of the human 
body, the meaning of the figurations in sculptures and bas-reliefs is 
equally relevant. It is a magnificent lesson for everyone to be able 
to study across time, the knowledge — already millennia old — 
bequeathed to the builders of true temples. Every vital center is 

Fig. 10. Luxor. Bas-relief from room 20 showing the 
crown of the skull cut off by a stone joint and a "piece" 
emphasizing the interest of this part. 


indicated. The glands and the vital connections between the organs, 
represented in the scenes, reveal their correspondence with the 
Neters that govern them; this throws much light on one of the true 
meanings of the pantheon. 

Summary of Principles 

The sages have always endeavored to hand down to posterity the 
revelation of the spirit disguised in the form of the words and 
parables of the sacred texts. 

These texts are syntheses of Knowledge whose basis is always the 
same, though adapted to the times and to the state of consciousness 
of a people or peoples. 

The means adopted for transmitting this teaching are manifold, 
comprising legends, tales, and customs, as well as monuments, 
statues, and temples. Thus, up to the end of the Middle Ages, the 
Christian tradition assigned specific attributes to a given Saint, 
sculpted or painted, and these attributes are a veritable scripture 
revealing what cannot be said in plain words. Temples — whether 
Hindu. Egyptian, Jewish, Christian, or Moslem — are always con- 
ceived according to a canon that respects certain elements which 
explain the teaching. 

In Egypt, in India, as well as later, in the Gothic period of Chris- 
tian cathedrals, the temple was a book revealing an "esoteric" 

Esotericism should not be understood as a rebus or a secret 
writing, but rather as the "spirit of the letter" — that is to say. that 
which cannot be transcribed clearly, not because there is any desire to 
conceal it, but because of the "cerebral" intellect's inaptitude for 
comprehending it. 

The character of the means of transcription of this esotericism 
should therefore be such that it addresses the faculties of the 


reader; the latter will read and understand it depending on his own 
faculties, whether normal or superior (intuition, spatial vision). 
Each will see in the parable or in the architecture of the true tem- 
ple, what he can see: utility, aesthetics, myth and legend, 
philosophical principle, or vision of material and spiritual genesis. 

In the case of a pharaonic temple, one must always try to deter- 
mine, first of all, what theme was emphasized. The dedication gives 
only an initial, general indication. 

It appears quite distinctly that the secret pharaonic teaching was 
based on the vital functions for which the organs are the living sym- 
bols, in the sense explained previously. There can no longer be any 
doubt of the Ancients' knowledge with regard to what might be 
called "spiritual metabolism." from the assimilation of nourishment 
to the liberation of the Energy — or Spirit — manifested in the 
intellectual faculties and the powers of Consciousness. 



Significance f ^ 

of the Crown of the Skull ^7— 

It IS NECESSARY to note that Egyptian figurations carefully ' 

mark — with a headband, crown, diadem, or joint — a dividing line 

for the top of the skull thus separating the crown of the skull. 

In Egypt the height of the body was measured exclusive of the 

crown. This affected the comparative study of the "’Golden Section" 

of the body among the ancient Egyptians as opposed to the Greek 


If we examine the nature of this detached part of the brain, we 
shall better understand the significance of the emphasis placed on 
the crown, whether it be removed or accentuated: in this way. one 
of the characteristics differentiating Egyptian from Greek thought 
will become clear. 

The head stands for the "Covered Temple." the sanctuary of the 
human body where all the control centers are gathered. It has the 
same symbolic meaning in the temple. The physiological, organic 
study of the head is very complex, and here I shall note the points 
that concern us most directly. 

Among the organs of the encephalon, the following must be dis- 

1. The medulla oblongata and the pons, the terminal point of 
the top of the vertebral column; 

2. The cerebellum, the center for the coordination of stimuli 
coming from the periphery or the cerebrum, and the regulator 
of the motions required for standing or moving (equilibrium); 

3. The cerebrum, with its two hemispheres, the control center 
for activity and the description of impressions; 


4. The complex of the hypophysical and pineal glands, form- 
ing the true "Holy of Holies," since all the faculties of intelli- 
gence depend on these especially. 

From the medulla oblongata and the pons stem twelve pairs of 
cranial nerves that — except for two of them — regulate the entire life 
of the head. (These two are the pneumogastric nerves, which inner- 
vate and connect the head with all the vegetative functions of the 
body, and the spinal nerves, which connect the head and the neck.) 

The two hemispheres of the cerebrum are made up of the outer 
layer (cortex or mantle), composed of grey matter, and a white 
mass underlying the nerve fibers. 

From the cortex, with the two lobes of the cerebrum, stem all the 
orders for every action of the body; it is from the frontal ascending 
convolution, along the Rolandic fissure (as well as from its exten- 
sion on the inner surface of the cerebrum, the paracentral lobule) 
that all the motor impulses stem. 

Here is located what in medicine is called "inverted man," 
because all the controls of the body stem from top to bottom, but 
inversely; the highest point of the Rolandic fissure controls the feet, 
whereas the controls for the head are located at the bottom of the 
fissure. 1 ' 

Let us also note that this double part of the cerebrum is pre- 
cisely that part which regulates the life of relation determining 
what I call the center of Cerebral Intelligence, that which requires com- 
parison, as opposed to the Intellect (Saint Thomas Aquinas) or the 
"Intelligence of the Heart" of the ancient Egyptians, which gives the 

1 With respect to the zones of the cerebrum. I must point out the auditory zone, 
which is located beneath the temporal bone. 

This explains the Egyptian expression "to give the temple" (Maat) for "to pay 

Thus the meaning of this figure of speech is to "open one’s intelligence to the 
word." This proves two things: 

1. The Ancients put more value on the vital function than on the organ of 

perception (currently we would say "to lend an ear”). 

2. The Ancients had an accurate knowledge of the centers of life and 

intelligence, and knew everything about the brain, which contradicts the state- 
ments of Professor Hermann Grapow (see chapter VI, p. 105, note 10). 


direct concept, without the necessity for comparison through an 
opposition. 2 

Let us also note that the two hemispherical lobes of the cerebrum 
are separated by lamina (an extension of the dura-mater) which 
ossifies with age and is shaped like a falx, or sickle. This lamina 
acts as a separator, not only in fact, but also symbolically, by 
dividing into two halves that cortical part of the cerebrum in which 
ideas and the faculty of reasoned intelligence are inscribed. It is not 
simply a question of separating a single organ into two parts, but 
separating a function into two aspects, psychological Consciousness 
and "cerebral" intelligence. Every "notion" is the consciousness of a 
definition through the opposition of two possibilities, one affirmative, 
the other negative. The fact observed is the positive pole, and its nega- 
tion makes it comprehensible. By means of this organ, we can only under- 

! ' lU! k J.i’MliN 

Fig. 1 1 . Left side of the cerebrum, showing the principle motor and sensorial 
centers as well as the Rolandic fissure. The dotted line marks the part of the 
crown of the skull separated in the figuration of the temple. 

"taken as a whole the cerebrum, center for all the coordinations of ideas, is thus 
the center of all personal reactions. Among all the ancient peoples the "simple- 
minded" are considered to be inspired, or capable of being directly inspired, acting in 
the absence of any true, reasoned will. 


stand through successive elimination and final selective choice, which 
for man is the only possibility of increasing knowledge. Thus, sym- 
bolically, this falx separates truth from error ((iood from Evil); and 
because of this dualization. the two lobes of the brain become the 
center of positive and negative inscriptions, which makes of the brain 
the instrument for the transcription of the direct, unique Intelligence of an 
"Adamic Man." 

Fig. 12. Section of the skull, showing schematically the "cerebral falx." 

The description of this "direct, and unique Intelligence" escapes us, 
as does any idea of Unity, which reason nonetheless imposes on us 
in other ways. 

If, in the figuration of man, we symbolically separate this crown of 
the skull, it leaves us only the Divine Man, Adamic Man (Kadman, the 
prenatural Adam of the Kaballah) before his fall into Nature, for 
after the fall he finds himself in constant opposition (Adam male 
and Eve female) and must therefore be born and die; he can no 
longer understand anything by merging with the creative Unity — he 
can only understand through comparison of opposites (psycho- 
logical consciousness). 

In the Greek mode it is natural man — man here below — who is 
represented; thus he must include the crown of the skull as shown 
by the measurement of the golden section . 1 

3 See chapters I and VIII. 


In their temples the ancient Egyptians speak only of the Prin- 
ciples of the World and of the Cosmic: Man within terrestrial man 
(Microcosm). Thus, in detaching the crown when the intention so 
requires, they separate the organ, which is the symbol of the fall 
from divine, direct Intelligence into transitory nature; and this dou- 
ble brain (right and left) becomes the principle of the sexualization 
and of the intelligence of the Created World. And this is one of the 
aspects that particularly interests me in the symbolism of the 
Temple of Luxor. 

To complement this explanation. I shall provide here the out- 
come of experiments cited by E. Gley in "The Effects of the Extir- 
pation or Destruction of the Brain and Particularly the Cerebral 
Hemispheres," (Physiology, vol. 2, p. 945): 

"In the case of the dog, the extirpation of the cerebral 
hemispheres was carried out successfully by Goltz (1889- 
1891) who even succeeded in keeping an animal alive for 
eighteen months, and also by Rothman (of Berlin) who 
kept one alive for over three years (1909-12). 

Goltz's 'dog without a brain' had lost all spontaneity 
and was insensitive to all psychic stimuli, calls, petting, 
the sight of a cat, etc. . . . Nevertheless, it would walk, 
albeit clumsily, when it was pushed; when pinched, it 
would start to growl or bark or try to bite; it could hear 
loud noises; its pupils contracted in the light, but its gaze 
always remained fixed, as though lost; placed on an 
inclined plane, it managed to hold itself so as not to slide; 
it ate with difficulty, and moreover it did not go after its 
food; and left on its own, it would have died. 

Rothmann's dog was deaf and blind, and it also lacked 
the sense of smell (whence the abolition of all sexual life); 
it could maintain its equilibrium and walk; it paid no 
attention cither to other dogs or to people; it experienced 
hunger and satiety. 

In summary, decerebrized animals retain, besides the 
organic functions, the functions of the coordination of 
movements and equilibration; they also retain emotional 
expression. Otherwise, they behave as automatons. What 
is removed with the outer layer of the cerebrum is the 


organ of the higher psychic functions, of memory, of the 
association of perceptions and ideas, of reflection on sensa- 
tions and representations; in short, the organ of intelli- 
gence, or, rather, of the intelligences — that is, syntheses of 
various psychic processes and adaptions of these to the 
manifold conditions of life." 

These experiments show that the removal of this part of the 

brain leaves man alive, but without discernment, hence with no per- 
sonal judgement. 

Thus, this part of the organs of the encephalon plays a very 

important role in the evolution of consciousness. 

The two hemispherical lobes of the brain are the instrument of 

memory and decision, hence choice. 

Thus, '"Divine" man (without this part of the brain) represents 

the Principle or Neter, capable of living and acting, but only as the 
executant of an impulse that he receives; hence, he plays the role of 
an intermediary between the abstract impulse, outside of Nature, 
and its execution in Nature, without actual choice. In this regard, 

this entity has a primitive, and "prenatural" character. 

On the other hand, natural man uses his cerebral instrument as 

a means of "sufferance of nature" (sufferance is to be interpreted 

as a deep experience through the conflict of consciousness, and not 
as pain). He will use it as a tool of his knowledge and his freely 
determined actions; these actions will thus be in agreement or at 
variance with natural harmony. When, through his experience, he 
has developed his consciousness to the utmost perfection, he will no 
longer need his cerebral instrument to attain it: he will need his 

cerebral instrument solely in order to act, in this incarnation. 

The life of this "superman" (in pure contemplation and ecstasy) 
will again be that of "Divine" man, but in consciousness — that is to 
say, no longer as a blind Neter, but as a being carrying within itself 
all knowledge, the sum of all possible experiences . 4 

Thus, Man without this crown of the skull represents the pre- 
natural Adamic Man as well as Man having surpassed Nature. 

4 The crown of the skull, containing the physical organ of the brain, should not be 
confused with the coronal circle that surrounds this braincase. I cannot treat this 
circle here, since it corresponds to conduits of energy flux that belong to a subtler 
state of the human body. On the other hand. I cannot remain entirely silent on 


Between the two, is located terrestrial man, undergoing birth and 


It is interesting to find this organ contained in an "external bony 
framework," like the carapace of an insect. This characteristic, like 
the sutures of the skull and the entire shape thus formed by the 

crown of the skull could be compared with the image of the scarab 

(a theme treated in Egypt especially under Thutmosis III and 

Amenophis III, the builders of the Temple of Luxor). 

Fig. 13. Skull seen from above. Fig. 14. Scarab seen from above. 

The head of Man, which serves as the symbolic base of this 
temple, is depicted without the crown of the skull, as I shall show- 
later, and we shall then see what is the state of the man who cor- 
responds to this instance. 

this subject, since without some knowledge of it the symbols which in Egypt are 
connected with it — for instance, the royal diadem — would be wrongly interpreted. 
This diadem symbolizes the crowning of wisdom — that is to say, the continual 
animation of the centers of higher life in the head. Its circuit ends at the central 
point in the forehead, symbolized in Egypt by the frontal uraeus. When the Egyp- 
tians speak of channels in the human body, they are referring not only to physical 
channels (nerves and vessels) but also to circuits of energy. 

Fluxes of energy are as much nutritive fluxes as "magnets" of the universal 
force. They are not necessarily carried by physical vessels. They could, for exam- 
ple, be considered fluxes of induction that emanate from specific centers precisely 
located according to the definite pathways enveloping physical matter. 


It becomes increasingly apparent that ancient Egypt, having a 
"vitalist mentality" in every form of expression, borrows from Man 
(Microcosm) his limbs, gestures, and organs, in order to symbolize 
the esoteric functions of Universal Man.’ 

It thus fits within the same logic to choose, among the animated 
creatures, the most characteristic types to represent these organs 
and functions. Each vegetable or animal species represents, in this 
philosophy, a stage in the evolution of Consciousness and, so to 
speak, the "animated organ-type" of this phase of evolution. 

Summary of Principles 

The motivation behind the emphasis on the crown of the skull 
can be summarized thus: 

Man's corporeal life is not an end in itself, but a state of transi- 
tion and a means. This is what distinguishes a spiritualistic from a 
materialistic concept of existence. 

In spiritual philosophy there exists a permanent element that takes 
on a corporeal form, momentarily. The purpose of this existence is 
to evolve Consciousness. 

The organic instrument, through which we assume consciousness 
in corporeal existence, plays a dominant role. This instrument is 
twofold. One part is the organism of the ultimate sublimation of 
organic elaborations, in order to disengage from it the nervous flux, 
the Energy or Spirit, the driving power behind vital reaction. This 
is the laboratory of the entire psychospiritual life; and only the 
Knowledge of this life can teach the human being the means of 
surpassing his condition as a mortal creature. The other part of the 
instrument is the "dualized" brain, which, through the senses, per- 
mits a contact (an intelligence) between the psycho-spiritual being 
and the natural environment. This cerebral intelligence, however 

5 The "Purusha" of the Vedas (Upanishads). 


great its relative importance, is but a transitory means, since only 
the Consciousness registered in the permanent element subsists 
after corporeal death. And that Consciousness is registered in the 
permanent by means of the cerebral intellect only through suffer- 

The crown of the skull, as the symbol of cerebral intelligence (a 
symbolism so characteristic of pharaonic Egypt), thus represents a 
unique means for expressing simply these abstract and complex 




on a Philosophy of Measure 

I SHALL NOT enter here upon an overly long development of what 
my observations taught me about the ancient Egyptian system of 
measures; I shall only note a few basic elements of their thought, 
transcribing these elements into a form accessible to our modern 



In order to explain irreducible magnitudes more easily. I shall 
first provide the elements of a philosophic speculation based on a 
classification of these magnitudes, such as they give rise to each 

Septuple order of irreducible magnitudes: 
abstract series 



Fig. 15. 

Septuple order of irreducible magnitudes. $y 


Opposing the abstraction of the indivisible Unity — that is, of the 
Origin O — is the lowest term, which is the Mass M. Between the 
two is located the middle term that results from this comparison of 
extremes: the Space S, which is also separating Space or "extent." 
It has a double nature. 

Each of these magnitudes is comprehensible only through the 
definition of the other two. Toward the Origin, the Space-Path SP 
plays the reactive role, while being a resultant of the Movement 


MT, which defines the Time T and the Path that is two-dimen- 
sional Space. 1 

Opposing the Space (Volume) SV (three-dimensional Path) is 
the reactive pole of the Mass M. This SV activity thus summarizes, 
through Movement, Time and Path. Thus, the Movement of the 
Volume defines the Force F which — arrested by the Mass, which 
reabsorbs it — gives the Energy EN (resultant energy, the final 
degradation of which will be heat). The Energy of Origin is 
always O. 

I say Volume is perceptible Space. Everything in the Universe 
has Volume, and there exists no perceptible Space other than that 
of Volume. The Universe, in which there appear to be things or 
volumes, is not Space; it is Spirit or Formless Substance. One thing 
is not separated from another by a Space, but, on the one hand by 
a path — two-dimensional space — and, on the other, by Time. 
However, Time is perceptible only through the Movement, and the 
Path; thus, the Time that separates two objects is the measure of 
the Movement, which makes it necessary for the entire perceptible 
Universe to be nothing but Movement. 

On the other hand, Time, defined by Movement and a Path, 
therefore has a beginning and an end. The impulse that gives in the 
beginning the Origin O has, as its ultimate and necessary end, the 
return into itself. This is the principial cycle. It will manifest itself in 
the concrete sequence in which this concrete end is the Mass or 
seed, summarizing the initial Energy, which took on the aspects of 
Time, Movement, and Space-Mass, this Mass or seed having con- 
centrated Force and resultant Energy. 

The Universe conceived as a living Being — Cosmic Man — is Life: 
that is to say, it is a gestation. Time is thus gestation, the distance 
between the seed and its fruit; the Movement is the growth that 
produces the volume, which is only substance formed into body or 

1 Two-dimensional space should be conceived as a "plane" without thickness. It is 
therefore a question of a "function" and not of a "thing." However, we cannot 
conceive ot action without the body in motion, since we only understand action 
through the body in motion. Thus, it is by means of Consciousness, generated by our 
existence, that we elaborate our "understanding" of the principles causing this 
existence. This is not the "knowledge" that is direct consciousness, hence knowledge 
of functions without a moving object. Exact science (which is nothing but 
hypotheses) appeals to this direct (a priori) consciousness because "Reason" 
imposes on us these notions for which we have no concepts. 


volume, by a seed. Energy O — the fermenl fixator that appears as 

In these conditions. Mass is nothing but the Energy O, the 
original Energy, but fixed: a ferment, a seed, the total obstacle to 
activity. The original activity being Absolute, the obstacle cannot 
be absolute; it is solely the sum of the resistances. If the mass were 
absolute, it would be the legendary "philosopher's stone" for the 
seed is nothing but resistance to the activity of the abstract sub- 
stance that thus takes form. A defined seed gives defined form. An 
absolute obstacle would give the universal form, which, ultimately, 
would blend anew with its Cause. 

Granting this, let us return to our subject, taking up again cer- 
tain points noted in this explanation. 

Just as the Movement defines Time and Space, the measure of 
length (movement) defines duration and path. But when Space — as 
path — must become Volume, Mass, the extreme pole of irreducible 
magnitudes, must be made to intervene. Between these two 
extremes, Space-Mass, lie Force and Energy. In fact. Movement, 
with Time, produces the Path that produces Force; and Force, 
arrested, will produce Energy (resultant energy). 

It is Volume that summarizes Weight, Force, and Energy; and it 
is Movement that summarizes Time and Path. 

Volume belongs to everything that exists; that, is to say, every- 
thing in the Universe has Volume. It is thus the summary of what 
we may call the "concrete series" of irreducible magnitudes. 

The "abstract series" (considered "causally" and independently 
of "things") comprises Time and Space, represented by the Move- 
ment (causal Verb ) 2 which will be, of necessity, in physics as well 
as metaphysics, the quantitative definition indispensable at the 

Thus, no measurement is possible without the establishment of a 
Unit that will be a measure of length. 

But, inversely, if we want to remain within a "philosophical 
truth" this Unit of length will be dependent on all the irreducible 
principles that are at the root of Knowledge. 

2 The French Le Verbe is conventionally rendered as the Word (or Logos). We have 
retained "Verb" in this translation because of the author's intention of conveying 
the sense of an eternally acting power at the origin of creation. — Trans. 


A conventional metrical system that has only a practical mean- 
ing, can thus be established, or a philosophic metrical system that 
will be integrated with Knowledge. 

In both cases logic would lead us to choose as a basis a geodetic 
datum, the most general and always verifiable. 

The rationalist, materialistic mentality, using this principle, has 
combined the decimal system with the geometric principle that, 
obligatorily, divides the circle of a day (the equatorial cycle) into 
four parts; then, subdividing each part into ten (or 10 6 ), it pro- 
claimed this size to be the unit of measure — our meter. 

There is an error in this way of thinking. The ancient Egyptians 
were perfectly well acquainted with this meter, as is frequently 
shown, but they did not use it to measure a circuit. 

Indeed, only imaginary lines, such as the axis of a body revolving 
around itself or the diameter of a curve, can be conceived as being 
straight. Every other line, in the Universe, that is nothing but Movement, 
will be curved. 

The Egyptians remain faithful to philosophic reason and make of 
measure an expression of Knowledge; that is to say that measure has 
for them a universal meaning linking the things of here below with 
things Above (vital equivalences), and not solely an immediate, 
practical meaning as in the COS system of modern science, a sim- 
ple system of quantitative equivalence. 

It is certainly impossible to specify a basis, immutable and applicable 
to everything, according to the simple measurement of objects — even 
if the object were the earth. Everything is moving, everything is 
variable; this is the property of the created being and hence of the 

Quantity is unstable; only function has a value durable enough to 
serve as a basis. Now, our rational discipline no longer permits us 
to glimpse a solution from that angle; however, it was character- 
istic of the mentality of the Ancients, which people today would 
prefer to classify pejoratively as "Oriental Mystical thought." This 
classification is, in my opinion, somewhat over-simplified. 

The measurements of numerous skeletons by Hambidge 3 have 
shown that there is a principle of proportion in the size of the 

3 Cited by Mattila C. Ghyka, in Esthetique des proportions dans la nature el dans les arts 
(Paris: Gallimard, 1927) p. 272. 


bones, with a particular module for the individual. Cuvier could 
boast of having reconstituted an antediluvian animal from a few 
fossilized bones, because there is a harmony proper to each 
"ensemble" (or individual) formed by Nature. 

But if a man constitutes an ensemble, a Unit that has its har- 
mony, he is himself part of a whole. He cannot be born without 
being in relationship with his environment, and this environment 
extends as far as the solar system. This is a bold concept, and its 
philosophic nature is not in keeping with the mode of thought of 
our analyst scholars. 

At most it might be conceded that here we are dealing with 
proportion, and not measurements. Indeed, it is in this fact that the 
whole problem lies; it is a question of recognizing what is the real 
value, proportion or measurement? Proportion belongs to geometry 
and harmony, measurement to the object and to arithmetic; and 
one necessitates the other. Proportion is the comparison of sizes; 
harmony is the relationship of measures; geometry is the function 
of numbers. 

In an "extreme formula" it could be said that, if a man has a 
true module, it is because the entire universe is, for him, harmonized 
according to his personal module; he will understand and see it 
inasmuch as he is himself. And since the Universe exists for us only 
through our consciousness and our particular intellectual faculties, 
nothing, in truth, opposes the admission of the "extreme formula." 

With this way of seeing, all rational science collapses, all scien- 
tific thought is precluded. 

A Universal harmony, through a set of proportions, could even- 
tually be conceded; but the Ancients, on the contrary, accorded all 
value to the measure and founded the universal Harmony on a basic 
measure particular to the man and to the place, thus variable and 
corresponding to life rather than to quantity. 

Opposing a conventional, rational CGS system, is a natural, 
vitally true philosophic system. 

What I've just said suffices to explain why the ancient Egyptians' 
Unit of measurement was always variable. 

We find the importance of the measurement called the "cubit" 
supported, however, by the exceptional nature of the "gift of the 
cubit" to very high dignitaries. 


We know, on the other hand, that a stable and unchanging basis 
exists, and that it results precisely from this natural philosophy, a 
knowledge to which the ceremony of the Royal Gift alludes. Thus, 
if the Ancients so carefully hid the secret of this knowledge from 
the uninitiated, it would be wise to look for the reason. Indeed, the 
fact of having in Nature, which is always moving, a fixed support 
(like that which Archimedes called for, "to take the world off its 
hinges"), would show that everything is connected by an unfailing 
logic; and this small fact would entail enormous consequences. 

But for the measurement of the human body, one must be con- 
tent with proportions based on a particular coefficient. One cannot 
fit a living thing — whether it be human society or the individual — 
into a theoretical scheme. All the modern attempts to formulate an 
"average" for measurements, including Viola's "Normotype," are 
misleading. The famous "golden section" of the Greeks is a 
systematization that, has carried us away from a living science, and 
pharaonic antiquity was very careful not to commit such an error. 
For architecture, the downfall was completed with the systematization 
of Vitruvias. 

In ancient Egypt, measure and proportions can be adapted to the 
purpose and the symbolic meaning of the idea to be expressed. The 
cubit will not. necessarily be the same from one temple to another, 
since these temples are in different places and their purposes are 
different. The cubit will not be the same for measuring one Neter 
or another, according to whether the Neter is Horian or Osirian. 
primordial created, or natural (transitory principle). But each cubit 
corresponds in itself to a definite value, which means it can be used 
under specific conditions . 4 

In the Temple of Luxor columns arc made in varying propor- 
tions — soaring or massive, depending on whether it is a question of 
a growth or a foundation. The capitals represent buds opened up to 
breathe or closed to bear fruit. Measures and proportions provide a 
valuable guide for reading the meaning of these symbols. 

4 In this connection. I can fill a gap that, Kamel Oshman Chalet Pasha was 
obliged to leave in his very interesting work on "The Nilometric Cubit" in the 
Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Geographic, vol. 21, (1943). Here, the author reports the 
existence of a cubit, called the "Black Cubit," of unknown origin. This cubit is 
carved on the socle of the black granite colossus to the east of the entrance leading 


Fig. 16. Measure of the Black Cubit on the socle of a colossus. 

To illustrate the "vital" nature of measure and to make my 
explanation more comprehensible, let us imagine the following 

It is a question of measuring a tree X and a tree Y. Today a 
yardstick of some kind would be used. The measurement would be 
a relative determination, calculated by units and fractions, and we 
should obtain only a comparison of sizes between the circumfer- 
ences of the trunks, the heights, etc., of these two trees. 

With the system of measurement based on the philosophic, 
"vitalist" principle, two different cubits would be employed, one for 
tree X and the other for tree Y, but these cubits would not be 
chosen arbitrarily. 

In fact, each of these individual members of the vegetable 
kingdom belongs to a genus, and this genus to a family; and these 
families belong to an original "lineage." At the head of this lineage 
is a Neter, a "Principle" synthesizing all the characteristics of 
this lineage: its number, its rhythm, its classification in the general 

from the court of Ramses to the great colonnade. This black cubit is found only on 
black stones or on what corresponds to their symbol. Its measured length is 54 cm. By 
my calculations its mathematical length would be 54.02376 cm (see fig 16). 


Let us suppose tree X is attributed to the Neter X and tree Y to 
the Neter Y; each of these Principles has a measure that corre- 
sponds to its rhythm; and this measure, applied to any one of the 
individuals that, in each kingdom, belongs to this lineage, will 
therefore determine all its particular proportions and characteristic 
qualities, in its growth as well as in its appearance, its behavior, 
and its affinities. 

Thus the "cubit," whose strange divisions are geometric, astro- 
nomical, and geodetic coordinales, has a vital meaning. 

On the contrary, the comparison of relative sizes is a quantitative 
conclusion, which in this case has no meaning. 

The principle of the Neter is associated with the cubit. 

The proof is found in the hieroglyphic system: the sign of the 
cubit is represented by a section of the forearm assuming the out- 
line of the recumbent sign of the Neter, 5 which confirms the brief 
explanation just given. 

Let us note again the importance of the color of the sign. Often 
the "stalk" of the hieroglyph Neter is colored green, symbol for 
"vegetable," the Neter being considered as the seed that sum- 
marizes all the possibilities of a particular rhythm (figs. 17-18). 

Fig. 17. The sign "Neter. " Fig. 18. The sign of the arm. 

Some may object that it is not very likely that, as I maintain, a 
particular cubit can give universal indications, being applied, for 
instance, to measuring a tree-trunk, young or old, small or large. It 
is true that, in current practice, this has no significance when it is 
solely a matter of knowing a quantitative size; an ordinary measure 

5 The sign of the arm being the individualization of the Neter. it gives birth, func- 
tionally, to the sign of the "cubit": 


will suffice. But when it is a matter of speaking about this tree as a 
symbol in a text of a sacred nature, the use of the particular 
cubit — or, inversely, the attribution of this tree to a definite Neter — 
takes on an extremely important significance. This simple com- 
parison, in fact, summarizes an entire philosophy, placing this 
object in relationship with everything that concerns the lineage of 
this tree in the vital harmony of the world; and this relationship 
will be astronomical as well as physiological. 

This tradition has been preserved in modern Astrology, which 
attributes a given plant to a particular planetary lineage. However, 
this is but the ABC of a real science that was practiced in ancient 
Egypt in the full knowledge of cause and effect. 

Let us further elucidate, by means of a geometrical image, the 
role of the Neter as head or Principle of a lineage. 

From the sides of any angle (less than 90 degrees) one can, at 
any point, drop a perpendicular line to form similar right triangles. 

The angle can be likened to the Neter. The proportion or rhythm 
that it imposes is invariable, whereas the sizes or quantities of the 
triangles that it defines are innumerable. 

As for the measurement of man, there is one proportion that can 
be considered as only slightly variable: ratio of the height to the 
arm span, or fathom (fathom implies circuit). 

And the tradition of the fathom has come down to us. 

It is the fathom that plays the greatest role in the measures of 
the Temple of Luxor, dedicated to the Incarnation of the Spirit, or 
the Creation of Man. 

Just as there is little difference between the cubits (the small 
cubit of 24 digits) of men normally large or small, so the fathom 
varies little among men who work a lot with their arms. In prac- 
tice, a sailor can, with little error, measure his ropes and cables 
according to the size of his armspan, which will always be close to 
the meridian fathom at 45° latitude. That is to say that the fathom is 
at once an average human measure and a measure of the earth's circumference. 
A thousand fathoms (the nautical mile) equal one minute of an arc. 


the meridian arc now being established conventionally at 45° 

We see the fathom (or rather fathoms) used constantly in the 

architecture of the Temple of Luxor. Let us note that there also 
exists a sacred fathom. 6 

Here is an example in regard to the fathom: the strange rhom- 
boidal distortion of the plans of the west pylon prompted us to 

measure them carefully several times, rectifying the gaps between 
the stones (which are sound in this location) — gaps caused by set- 
tling or other accidental causes. 

The length of the pylon under the cornice, between tori gives, 

from the north side (along 12 fathoms), the meridian fathom at 90° 
(North Pole), and from the south side the meridian fathom at 0° 

(Equator); that is, respectively 1.86166 m and 1.8429 m (difference 
along 12 fathoms = 22.5 m). 

This could be a coincidence, but these measurements recur at 
several important points; let us therefore concede a repeating coin- 
cidence . . . 

I shall also add that the function or proportion of the golden sec- 
tion is constantly operative in Egyptian architecture. It is employed 
with great subtlety and no mystery. With a little precision in taking 
measurements, it is easily found. 

The Golden Number does not act solely as a function of an ideal 
proportion, but serves as the basis for a philosophy that makes the 
connection between the metaphysical state and the physical state. 
It is in this connection that the Golden Number's "sacred" char- 
acter consists. Furthermore, the human body develops in terms of 
this number. 

6 I use the epithet "sacred" to designate what, in the teaching of the temple, had a 
key value. 


Summary of Principles 

The aim of analysis is to split up a thing or an idea until it is 
reduced to an irreducible element. One thus reaches magnitudes 
such that each of them can only be defined by two other 
magnitudes. This is the original "trinity," indispensable for all 
cerebral consciousness, which can only apply to quantities. This 
"trinity" is the Measure of an irreducible magnitude. While, in 
the deistic conception, the origin of the world requires a Trinity in 
one "Person," in pharaonic Egypt we see this principle applied to 
the origin of each natural "lineage" of the divine manifestation. 
These ternary groups are thus spiritual "Measures" that are then 
translated by Numbers. The development of these Numbers con- 
stitutes characteristic rhythms. This development, as a Number, is 
inevitable and therefore is a Law. 

The Number should not be considered as arithmetical "enumera- 
tion," but as an Entity. The Number is thus the extreme reduction 
of the philosophic thought. The Number is the father of a lineage, 
like the Trinity; but it is a "father" — or entity — without a specify- 
ing name. In ancient China the Number One was considered to 
have the value Three. This seems to be true in ancient Egypt as 

The first five numbers, as well as all the prime numbers, are 
Entities, each having a value in itself, independent of enumeration. 
Thus it is that the numbers two, three, four, and five are Units and 
not compounds of Units. 

For example: the number four is the value that determines forms; 
it has the characteristic of determining the equality of the surface 
and circumference of a circle or square. A square whose side is 
four measures sixteen in circumference and sixteen in surface. A cir- 
cle whose diameter is four measure 4*pi in circumference and 4*pi in 
surface. This is only one example of "calculation." In fact, it is the 
philosophic consideration of functions that gives Numbers their real 
value and constitutes the "Science of Numbers." The latter bears 
no relation to our current mathematics. 

The Science of Numbers operates constantly in ancient Egypt's 
application of Measures. 



The Plan 

When SPEAKING of Pharaonic Egypt, one must never say 
"always" and always avoid saying "never," because pharaonic 
science is the science of Life — moving, adaptable, founded on the 
knowledge of death, which produces life. 

The time had not yet come for a revelation of the Redemption; 
this was the patriarchal epoch, the source. 

In the construction of the temple, several kinds of foundations 
can be observed: 

1. The temple set on virgin soil, with no real foundation. The 
soil is prepared by the symbolic sowing of various materials 
such as charcoal, resins, bitumen, natural salts combined for 
this purpose, and other consecrated materials. 


Fig. 19. Medamud. Original temple built on virgin soil. 

2. The temple constructed on chosen blocks from a temple 
that has been "turned under," like germinated seed that 


returns to the earth. The blocks are chosen and placed with 
care, providing, among other things, information on the mean- 
ing of the preceding monument and on the orientations of past 
and future temples. 1 

Let us note as well foundations on the unfired bricks of a 
previous temple, symbolizing water, that is to say. the "mud of 
the waters." 


Fig. 20. Karnak. Temple of 
Montu, resting on blocks from old 



Fig. 21. Karnak. Temple of 
Montu. Sandstone doorway resting 
on fired brick'. 

3. The temple built on a hollow basin or stylobate filled with 
stones from the preceding work, in apparent disorder. 2 One 
must be on one's guard, for this disorder is only apparent; 
great experience is necessary to discover in it the location of 
the sanctuary, the axes of orientation, and various symbols 
indicating the esoteric purpose of the new temple. 

This stylobate plays the role of a vase, in which the final 
"growth" of the seed thrown in this place will be 

’See Alexandre Varille (Quelques Caracteristiques du Temple Pharaonique, 1946 
on reusages. 

2 See figure 25. p. 72. 


Fig. 22. Karnak. Temple of Montu built on a hallow stylobate. 

Fig. 23. Medamud. Original temple. Fig. 24. Abu-Simbel. Great temple 

Sanctuary under mounds. hollowed out of the rock. 

4. The monument dug in the earth or carved in the rock must 
also be noted. Here earth and rock are considered the matrix 
of the temple. 

On the foundations of the second and third types the "platform" 
of the base is set up. This platform is useful for tracing the 
"geometric functions" that serve as a definition for the measures 
consistent with the Idea of the temple. 3 In the Temple of Luxor the 
same unit of measurement that is used for the geometric elabora- 
tion is employed for the head in all its details. 

On the outline, necessarily rigid, are constructed the walls of the 
chambers and rooms of the covered temple. These walls must be 
adapted to the Idea to be expressed, 'and they follow the outline on 
the ground, while retaining their autonomy. 

3 Here I am referring only to the stone platform, but a geometric outline is also 
found in brick constructions. 


The pharaonic architects construct their sanctuaries just as 
Nature constructs a plant. If a certain cell ought to be hexagonal, it 
will be so — since it is living, and growing — it adapts itself according 
to the needs of the moment and of the place. 

Similarly, certain chambers, apparently square or rectangular in 
plan, will be slightly rhomboidal or trapezoidal. One need only 
examine, in their angles, the cut of the stones to establish that for 
this distortion, an exceptional effort was required to give these 
angles a few degrees more or less than a right angle. 

The same kind of rhomboids or trapezoids can be found on the 
surfaces of the walls or tableaux. We might be inclined to attribute 
this to an oversight, but these distortions are insistently compen- 
sated for or occasionally repeated. The purpose of this is always to 
specify measure in the spirit that I have described. 

For example: The north wall of room 12, with its twelve 
columns, shows a slight concave curve, verifiable along two-thirds 
of its length. Obviously one is tempted to attribute this curve to a 
modification of the entire construction. However, each of the blocks 
making up this wall is cut with a slight curve having the same versed sine. 

One stands amazed before such studied refinement, such care in 
remaining loyal to the symbolism of the place, down to the subtlest 

The study of a pharaonic monument is inexhaustible. 

The covered Temple of Luxor is constructed along three axes: 

1. A median axis accurately dividing the south face into two 
equal parts — "the geometric, astronomical axis." 

2. A longitudinal axis for construction — "the general axis of 

3. An axis dividing the width of the naos of Amun into equal 
parts — "the horary axis of Amun." 

The geometric axis is marked in sanctuary I under the platform (see 
fig. 25), but its influence works in an occult manner. 

The axis of measures is traced under the limestone paving of sanc- 
tuary 6 of the barque of Amun, on the sandstone platform. It was 


Fig. 25. Luxor. Sanctuary 1. Indication of the median 
geometric axis under the pavement. 

later hammered, without being effaced (see fig. 26). This axis divides 
the wall of the south faee into two unequal parts. The eastern part 
comprises exactly 10 fathoms, the western part comprises another 
measure of a clearly defined nature. 

This axis transects with the axis of Amun, on a keystone located 
on the threshold between the sanctuary of the barque (room 6) and 
room 4. 

The axis of Amun, is marked on the ground, under the lime- 
stone paving of room 6 (see fig. 26). It divides the naos of Alex- 
ander into two equal parts along its entire length; the axis is 
framed — to the left and right, on the south interior stiles of this 
naos — by two ram's-head djed pillars. 4 It ends, at the north side of 
the temple, against the west pylon in the chapel of Amun, also in 

4 Djed pillars are those having the appearance of a bundle of stalks tied together 


Fig. 26. Luxor. The two axes traced in the sandstone 
platform of the sanctuary of the Barque. 

the center and between two ram's-head djed traced on the south 
wall of this pylon. 5 

The axis of Amun forms an angle of 54' with the general axis. 

On the exterior south wall of room 1 is traced an ankh sign, the 
symbol of life (certain axes are indicated by an ankh). Here it is a 
question of an indication of "measure," resulting from a geometric 
function directly related to the basic unit (fathom) of the measures 
used in the temple. 

The entire covered temple appears as a construction established 
on the plan of an axis and later displaced from this axis by a slight 
pivoting motion. This "displacement" action is constant, not only 
for the plan of an entire building, but for the figure as well; and 
this corresponds to a purpose. 

5 In the ceiling of the Amunian naos of Alexander there is a reused sandstone trave 
whose ornamentation is similar to that of the pink granite architrave at the 
entrance to the chapel of Amun, of the repository of Ramses II, in the first court 
of the temple. 


We must, once and for all, conceive of the pharaonic temple as a seed in the 
process of bearing its fruit. It is truly the most grandiose conception of 
architecture. However, a building is by nature rigid. One could, if 
need be, imagine figurations that would recall this gestation. That 
would be rational, but not vital, as in the spirit of the ancient 

Egyptians. For them, the entire building had to live. This charac- 

teristic of gestation may have prompted Herbert Ricke 6 to consider 
pharaonic architecture "vegetal." This is correct, since all gestation 
comprises both growth and vegetation, but this strict enclosure in a 
formula, corresponding to the weslern mentality, is devoid of life. 
Growth unfolds in three dimensions; and gestation is a constant 

transformation until the perfection of the new seed. 

Comparison with other known examples, such as the afore- 
mentioned Kamutef, will reveal the method used to make this 

architecture "live." 

The reasoning might be the following: 

Since every generation involves a growth in volume, since all 

growth can only take place in a harmonious rhythm (that is to say, 
proportional to a particular coefficient), and since this rhythm is 

indisputably ordained by phi (the Golden Number), it is sufficient 
to know the module (coefficient) particular to the species or to the 
individual member of the species or of the Neter Principle to make 
a "living," harmoniously (magically) correct form, developing an 

architecture or image from this module with phi. 

In response to this reasoning one might raise the objection that 
phi is the golden section of a line, but it does not apply to surfaces. 
And as for volumes, the problem seems to have no solution. 

In mathematical — indeed, scientific and aesthetic — terms, what 
the very erudite Mattila C. Ghyka 7 has written about the Golden 
Number could scarcely be surpassed. However, here one finds only 
the quantitative aspect of the question, for the Ancients did not approach 
the problem in the same way. There is a philosophic aspect not under- 
stood by the West. 

Like a Renaissance man, Ghyka allows himself to be tempted by 
the "Fibonacci series," which affords a pulsation of the value phi. 

6 See Herbert Ricke, Bemerkungen zur Aegyptischen Baukunst des alien Reichs, vol. 1 

7 Manila C. Ghyka. Esthetique des Proportions dans la Nature et dans les arts, and Le 
nombre d'or, les Rythmes, les Rites. 


Male and female aspects for this number do, in fact, exist, but with 
no modification of its exact value. The ancient Egyptians — as far as can 
be ascertained — do not make use of the correct value. 8 With them 
there are no generalities in the usage of this number but an exact 
reasoning with regard to its meaning. 

I maintain that my reasoning is applicable and that the preced- 
ing objection has no value, because there does not exist a value phi for sur- 
faces, and there does exist a Golden Number for volumes. 

In constructing figures, one must not depart from the figure in 
order to deduce its movements; this is merely studying it. 

It is necessary to find the geometric construction that makes it 

There are two axes of construction: 

The axis of stability, which passes through the ear (inner ear, 
equilibrium) and ends in the sole of the foot. 

The axis of movement, which theoretically passes through the eye (it 
is sight that directs) and the big toe (it is on the ball of the foot 
that one places one's weight in order to move forward). 

There are four forms of application: the immobile figure, the 
figure about to move (the case of the Kamutef cited), the figure in 
motion (the normal stride) and running (the long stride). 

The principle of motion through pivoting is applied to the 
famous figure of the Kamutef located at N on the general plan. 
Figures 27 and 28 show the application of the outlines, taking into 
account all the stone joints, and prove that these stone joints are not 
located haphazardly. One might raise the objection that this figure 
was drawn, and placed in relationship, on an older wall. It is none- 
theless true that the figure corresponds point by point with the set 
of joints; the accessory figures of the symbol are, on the other hand, 
always traced according to one of the functions of phi. 

There is, indisputably, a geometric basis acting as a grid for the 
construction of this figure. 

This geometric basis is found everywhere, but the module varies, 
which means that the symbolic meaning must be sought within this 

The entire construction of the temple can be broken down, as 
Ludwig Borchardt has pointed out, into three phases. I shall not 
concern myself with the historical aspect; only the symbolism 

s An exception must be made for the initial technical drawing which investigates 
the relationships of whole numbers. 







Fig. 27. Luxor, Kamutef. The stone joints determine the rectangle ABCD. AH = X, 
BC = X/2.5 and 1/2 BC = X/5. Given that X = 1 = 1/phi 2 , X/5 x/T = 1/phi 
of the complete figure equal to phi 2 1/phi x phi = 1/phi + 1/phi 2 = 1. 


Fig. 28. This outline is designed to show the two slopes 
imparted to the vertical line XX passing through the 
stone joint, and giving the Kamutef movement. The axis 
of stability starts from the center of equilibrium X' inner 
ear); its slope is given by angle A. The axis of move- 
ment starts from the tip of the foot; its slope is given by 
the angle B. 

t — *6 






' /; V5'-1 

= Tt' 

A =— 0- 
Y T 

TANG B - —0~ 


interests me here. The first stage of the temple ineludes the covered 
temple and the great peristyle court (the transept; hence from T to 
S as indicated in fig. 48, p. 122). 

The second stage adds the great Amunian colonnade (the nave), 
as far as the seated black colossi, located in front of its entrance. 

Then there is added the court of the colossi (called the court of 
Ramses), with the pylons. 

It is obvious that the overall plan pre-existed and that it was 
known to those who executed it. This is shown by; 

1. the strict observance of proportions that cannot always be 
the result of coincidences; 

2. the axis of Amun, which was traced by the first builders 
under the paving of the sanctuary of the barque of Amun and 
ends, in the north, quite precisely on the axis of the Amunian 
chapel set up in the colonnade of the court of Ramses, along 
the south face of the first pylon; 

3. the astronomical character of the movement of the geome- 
trical axis (see chapter V, "Orientation"). 

In the supplement to chapter VIII can be found explanations 
showing that the modifications of the entire building were foreseen 
from the start. 

Summary of Principles 

A plan requires systematization to apply an idea. All systemati- 
zation requires a logic, imposing a constant in the manner of exe- 

In the Temple of Luxor we observe the use of several axes, which 
allows an action, or "movement," in the harmony of the construc- 
tion. This movement takes place within a rhythm given by the 
"module," or the particular coefficient of the thing or idea to be 
defined. This is a subtle way of playing with the rigidity imposed 


by matter; moreover, it demonstrates a profound understanding of 
Nature, which always proceeds in this manner. 

For the subject occupying these pages, I have merely indicated 
this play in the plans, but it applies equally to volumes. 

The pharaonic Masters did not make the mistake of starting 
from a "Euclidian point." The "point" is divine and incomprehen- 
sible, whereas in Nature everything has volume. Thus it is from 
volume that they start, because their thinking is positive. They do 
not base their geometry on an indefinable moral or sentimental 
abstraction. Their goal is to awaken the Consciousness of what we 
call God. Their means, on the contrary, are positive (i.e., within 
the laws of matter), as the terrestrial environment of our existence 
is positive. The Upanishads also teach that it is impossible for us 
to learn elsewhere what we are incapable of learning within our 

The whole point is to activate the higher faculties, and not be 
content with the deceptive means of cerebral intelligence. 

The volume, once cut, gives the plane. The latter is comprehen- 
sible. Three edges, at least, determine a point; this point has a 
meaning, because it is ternary. 

This mode of thought opens the doorway onto a "Mathematical 
Philosophy"; it is this philosophy that is expressed in the plan of 
the Temple of Luxor. 




IT IS THE axes of the Temple of Luxor that throw the most light 
on the architectural principle of the pharaonic temple. They are 
marked on the ground, and this fact may be verified. 

It is this construction on three axes that gives "movement" to the 
entire architecture, thus creating that "living state" of which I 
spoke in the chapter on "The Plan." Each of these axes has, in 
addition to its mystical meaning, a practical meaning connected 
with it. 

We must first establish the north-south orientation. In this con- 
nection, we encounter a problem which must be pointed out. It will 
always be difficult, if not impossible, to establish, amid construc- 
tions such as that of Luxor, a true magnetic north with an ordinary 
compass. The more sensitive the compass, the more it will undergo 
deviations due to the masses of blocks made of generally ferrugi- 
neous sandstone. In the Temple of Luxor is added the effect of iron 
bars set in the cement, recently inserted to consolidate certain parts 
of the masonry that were threatening to fall into ruins. Thus, unless 
one were to use an adjusted marine compass, one could never 
establish, with any certainty, a magnetic north enabling one to 
calculate true north. For this reason I used the Sun, which does not 

The general axis is at an angle of 33° 34' from north-south. This 
is the axis of measures. It divides the south facade of the temple 
into two parts that are unequal, like most of the "votive" cubits 
that have come down to us. This inequality is connected not only 
with Time but above all with the principle of the variation of the 
solar influence. In fact, it would be a mistake to attempt to apply 


the formula of "the Temple in the image of Heaven" in a purely 
astronomical connection. 

I insist on affirming that pharaonic Science is vital, and never sche- 
matic. One might say: "Pharaonic Egypt abhors symmetry just as 

Nature abhors a vacuum." 

The highest point of the sun at midday does not divide its course 
into two equal parts. There are variations of duration, from sunrise 
to noon and from noon to sunset; but that is not what matters 
here. It must be noted that the morning sun is not the same, 

vitally, as the afternoon sun, as every experienced gardener well 

It is not a question of an accumulation of heat in the course of 
the day but of a different radiation that affects all life, as an emis- 
sion of ultra-violet or infra-red rays could do (and probably does). 

There results from this a variation in the growth and ripening of 
every living thing; the measure applied to these two states is not 

the same. Let us acknowledge an Osirian meaning and a Horian 

meaning — adapted to the myth — for these measures. Indeed, in the 
composition of the statues and figurations, the measure cor- 
responding to the characteristic mythical lineage is used. 

The a.xis of Amun. This axis is at an angle of 34° 27' to north- 
south. This angle corresponds to an orientation of the temple on a 
given hour. In this regard, one could profitably consult the list of the 
"solar barques" at Edfu. 1 

'The Egyptians conceived the sun — Re — as riding across the sky by day and 
under the earth by night in a boat or barque. A list of these barques was kept at 
the Temple of Edfu. — Trans. 


Fig. 29. Plan showing construction along the geometrical axis and the axis of 


w '©> ® 

Fig. 30. Plan showing construction along the axis of Amun. 


Each wall of the covered temple, which interests me especially here, is 
constructed along one or another of the three axes, as is shown by figures 
29 and 30. 2 

Thus each wall and its inscription should be studied according to the 
axis that rules it. 

There is neither poor execution nor incoherence in the architec- 
ture of the covered temple, as these halls with distorted angles or 
these sometimes awkwardly aligned columns might seem to suggest. 
And even if one does not care to place any faith in the "esoteric" 
reasons that I provide here for those who wish to hear them, there 
still remains the positive fact that in the Temple of Luxor the walls 
obey a law particular to each of the three axes marked on the plat- 
form and easily verifiable. This should be sufficient to alert 
archaeologists to the errors of their present methods of research. 

Since it has been shown that there may be several axes in the 
construction of a pharaonic monument, and that the surveys made 
by the archaeological architects have been carried out according to 
their preconceived idea of a schematic constructon, consistent with 
modern thought, all the surveys carried out up to the present 
should be revised. 

On the other hand, for the same reason, a reconstruction makes 
no sense and ought to be avoided. 

2 Ludwig Borchardt, Zur Geschichte des Lugsortempels (1896) must not have known of 
this aspect of the construction; this is why he corrected distortions, modifying — 
mistakenly - the angle of the south face. 


Summary of Principles 

Orientation is of capital importance for life on earth, since the 

stars govern its entire existence. The Christ cult is a solar cult; that 
is why cathedral choirs are oriented toward the rising sun. They 

are never found orientated exactly east-west, for the reason that 
only the North Pole is relatively fixed; the east-west bar of the 
Cross of orientation is mobile through the seasons. A fixed east- 
west direction is purely theoretical. In the case of the pharaonic 

temple, observation of the orientation is a valuable indication of the 
temple's meaning. 

This would require an explanation that I must reduce here to a 

few indications. We are so accustomed to the terms "left" and 

"right" that we no longer accord any interest to their considera- 

tion. However, they express something other than conventional 
designations. In Nature, left and right have a "vital" value. Hence, 
bodies suspended in the Universe turn around their axes. 

The North Pole will be defined as the movement that, seen from 
this North Pole, turns from right to left. Seen from the South Pole, 
this same body turns from left to right. This is not simply a ques- 
tion of relative appearance: the physical effect is completely- 
different. Let us note something not generally known: that is, that 
the North Pole attracts and the South Pole repels, with respect to 

the masses of these rotating bodies. Our North Pole hollows out the 

earth and it can be said to absorb the continents, whereas the South 
Pole extrudes earth and it can be said to create the continents. 
The entire mass of our continents is projected in a spiral motion 
toward the North Pole. This observed fact modifies the current con- 
ception of the poles of a rotating mass. There are nol two effects, hut 
three: south versus south repels, north versus south attracts, north 
versus north is neutral. 

For the ancient Egyptians the south is that which realizes, that 
which gives body. The north is that which inspires. 

This is a brief, schematic account. In practice the functions are 
more fluid, hence more complex. 



The Temple in Man 

j • 

IN THE presentation of the sacred theme (principles) through 
representation in bas-relief, the parts of the body with symmetrical 
organs are shown in profile. The parts of the body with 

asymmetrical organs (left and right) are shown full-face. But when 

it is a question of giving measurements, or of symbolizing functions 
and states, all variations (positions, distortions, etc.) are permis- 
sible. For instance, the arms, characterized as left or right, are 
sometimes represented, depending on the intention, with two left 
hands or two right hands. The left hand receives, the right gives. 
The legs are joined or taken as one mass, as with a mummy, to 
express the idea of fixation, death, or inertia; they are placed one in 
front of the other to indicate a state of life. 

Thus, the seated, standing, or running personage has its par- 
ticular meaning which — like its gestures, attributes, costume, and 

color — must be interpreted. It is very important to note that 

"created" personages — that is to say, personages issued from the 
Divine principle and not procreated through woman — have no navel. 

The figures are the primary, secret writing. 

"Man, know thyself and thou wilt know the Universe and the 
Gods" echoes Delphi. 

In the same spirit, St. John says: "For he knew what was in 
man" (2:25). 

The Temple of Luxor was constructed to explain these things. 


The pavement of the platform of the Temple of Luxor was con- 
ceived as a mosaic: It is made of very disparate pieces, which is in 
itself surprising when one sees with what care the rest of the edifice 
is constructed. It is now very damaged. In our drawing we have 
"reconstructed" nothing; we have only carefully surveyed each 
stone ffig. 31). 

The different elements of a face in profile are sufficiently visible 
to enable one to make a complete outline of it, taking into account 
the proportions the face should have according to the standard 
Egyptian canon (fig. 32). 

These proportions, transferred to the face on the pavement, coin- 
cide strikingly with the various walls that specify them (fig. 33). 

In the Egyptian canon of the Neters, the head, with the crown of 
the skull, represents one-seventh of the body's total height. In cer- 
tain instances that are more humanized, the ratio becomes 1/7.5. 1 

If it was truly the Egyptians" intention to outline a human head 
in the pavement, the doorways and openings should correspond to 
the interior and exterior channels of the head. Now, if one studies 
the diagram representing a sagittal section of the head and show- 
ing the location of the central organs, one observes that all the 
openings are also found in the plan of the pavement, if one takes 
into account the fact that this plan shows the head in super- 
imposed sections (sec figs. 34, 35 and 36). 

Thus we do find the image of a human head in this construction. 

This being so, the chambers and the openings take on an extra- 
ordinary meaning; here I shall note only a few important general 
facts, since a complete study of the relation of the myth to the 

physiology of the human head — its glands, organs, and circuits of 
blood and of humors — would require a lengthy work. 

First, let us compare the general plan of the temple with the 

skeleton of man. the drawing of which (see fig. 2, p. 23) was 

executed in accordance with a study of the proportionate size of 

each bone and of the general proportions of the human body. 

The crown of the skull does not figure in the image of the head 
in the covered temple, which stops at the normal height of the 
pharaonic headband with the facade of the south wall. We are 

1 For a discussion of the proportions of the Egyptian canon, see chapter VIII. 


Fig. 31. Survey of the southern part of the pavement of the covered temple. 


Fig. 32. Pavement shown as mosaic. 


R 1^*1 

^ »• i 

| JB * *£Yuh^B^v: 

7 A 

Fig. 34. Schematic sagittal section showing the location of the principal organs: (1) 
falx cerebri; (2) corpus callosum; (3) septum lucidum; (4) trigonum; (5) tela 
chorioidea; (6) third ventricle; (7) white anterior commisure; (8) epiphysis (pineal 
body); (9) corpora quadrigina; (10) optic chiasma; (11) corpus mamillare; (12) 
pharyngeal orifice of the Eustacian tube; (13) cerebral peduncle; (14) pons; (15) 
medulla oblongata; (16) cerebellum; (17) olfactory bulb; (18) lamina cribrosa of the 
ethmoidal bone; (19) hypophysis (pituitary body); (20) soft palate; (21) salivary 
glands; (22) thyroid cartilage; (23) clavicle. 


Fig. 35. Projection of the southern part of the temple on the sagittal section, 
indicating the position of the principal organs. 


Fig. 37. Luxor. Sanctuary of the barque of Amun. Surrey carried out in 1948 



Fig. 38. Sanctuary of the barque of Amun. 


therefore dealing with Adamic man, with divine intelligence, before 
the "fall" into Nature. 

The figure of man that serves as the basis of the Temple of 
Luxor is prenatural Neter man, for the nasopharyngeal opening 
remains closed and will not be opened until the end of the 
pharaonic epoch. This will be the epoch of his natural animation or 
earthly incarnation, corresponding to the moment when the child 
inhales air as it is born into this world. Until this time, this Neter 
man does not breathe the outer air and lives only through his inner 
ear, symbol of his direct inspiration. 2 

The respiratory canal is indicated, along the axis of the temple 
from the hypostyle room (lungs) into room 12 (rear nasal fossae), 
by an uninterrupted series of long paving stones which cross the 
thresholds of all the doorways and pass under the wall (still closed 
under Amenophis III) that separates rooms 6 and 12. It is here, at 
the site of the nasopharyngeal orifice, that we find — existing since 
the beginning — a niche, on the side of room 6, in the exact spot 
where later a doorway was made (figs. 37 and 38). Furthermore, it 
appears from the architecture that the idea of a passage was 
expressed, from the beginning, by the aforementioned large slabs, 
passing under the still-solid wall, and by the first course of stones 
connecting, in this place only, room 6 and room 12. 

In support of this thesis I give here the physiological application 
of the act of swallowing which will give me the opportunity to pre- 
sent a brief example of interpreting the correspondences among a 

physiological function, the architecture, and the figurations. 

During swallowing we do not breathe into the lungs; but if. at 

this moment, one closes one's nostrils, the auditory perception of 
external sounds is altered. Thus Understanding 3 is opened up. This 
is not mere supposition, but the secret of the occult effect of 

pronouncing certain words (Mantram). The reason is (hat the 

Eustachian tube, which provides air to the eardrum (middle ear) is 
usually closed and opens only at each swallowing movement by the 
following mechanism: the rear nasal fossae are normally in commu- 
nication with the oral part of the pharynx, through the naso- 

2 The styles of catalepsy of certain Hindu "fakirs" are achieved through closing 
this passage by swallowing the tongue. 

3 In French the word for understanding (entendement) shares the same root as 
entendre, "to hear” or "to understand." — Trans. 


pharyngeal passage (the part of the wall between rooms 6 and 12 
opened in the late dynastic period). This passage is occluded by the 
action of the muscles of the staphylopharyngeal pillars, which con- 
tract and join at the moment of swallowing. At this moment the 
orifice of the Eustachian tube opens, under the pressure of the soft 
palate (south partition of room 2, representing the coronation). 

However, for swallowing to take place there must be a liquid 
medium; the production of saliva is thus of great importance. The 
salivary secretion of the sublingual and submaxillary glands (north 
partition of room 2, representing the swamp 4 ) is instigated by the 
"cord of the eardrum," a nerve so named because it traverses 
the eardrum. The nerve that innervates these glands is called the 
tympanicolingual nerve, but experiments have shown that only 
the cord of the eardrum gives these glands their secretory fibers. 

This phenomenon of "the calling to the inner ear" may be com- 
pared with the gesture of "swallowing one's saliva" in moments of 
extreme concentration, when one finds oneself hard pressed for an 


On the east side of room 12 is located the eye, marked on the 
ground. In this room is developed the theme of the twelve hours of 
the day. The young King enters from the east and reaches puberty. 
The measurements confirm this, and with them one can follow the 
life of the King. 

In this same room is seen the solar barque bearing the naos con- 
taining the Falcon crowned with the solar disk. Here the accent is 
placed on the eye, by the mention of Horns. We know that the 
brain of a bird is retinal — that is to say, that it contains in more 
specially developed form, the cerebral organs of vision. Thus one 

4 In this connection I quote from Hippocrates: "Thus the glands, profiting from 
the superabundant hunger of the rest of the body, find a suitable nourishment. 
And, therefore, where there are swampy parts of the body, there are found the 
glands; and proof of this is that where there are glands there also are hairs. 
Nature produces glands and hairs. Glands and hairs are equally useful: glands for 
the affaent humor, as has been said; hairs, having precisely what the glands fur- 
nish them, spring up and grow, gathering the superfluity which seethes toward the 
extremities. But there, where the body is dry, there are neither glands nor hairs." 


should principally seek in Homs the symbolization of the eye, and 
its relation to the center of visual consciousness. 

The medulla oblongata, from which stem the twelve pairs of 
cranial nerves, ends in the west side of room 12. From the medulla 
the marrow continues into the spinal column, and from the marrow 
stem all the sensory and motor spinal nerves. However, if there is a 
central severance of the motory nervous channel, excitation of the sole of 
the foot will show there is a break in the motory arc. Normally- 
plantar excitation of the feet causes a flexion of the toes toward the 
soles, and when the big toe disassociates from the other toes (that 
is to say, remaining extended while the others are bent), it is a sign 
of a central interruption of the motory nervous channel. 

However, on the one hand, the theme of the "Nine Bows," 3 
generally placed under the feet of the King, is indicated at Luxor by the 
group of archers on the north face of the east pylon, where the soles 
of the feet are located (see fig. 39). On the other hand, we must 
note the important connection between the west pylon, representing 
one of the feet, and room 12, because we find in both exactly the 
same measurement, that is, 12 fathoms (see fig. 40). 


The Sanctuary (room 6) unites, appropriately, several functions; 
it is located precisely in the pharynx, where the food and air that 
support life are admitted and where the voice, the word that 
creates, is amplified. The barque is located at the site of the uvula 
and controls the opening and closing of this junction. The barque 
goes — as the symbolism requires — from east to west; 4 the naos 
opens on the north side. 

It is on one of the paving stones in front of the step of the sanc- 
tuary of the barque (room 6) that the profile of an ithyphallic Min 
is carved. 5 6 7 

5 In French the word are means both "bow" and "arc" — Trans. 

6 At Karnak, in the corresponding sanctuary, the barque does not lie crosswise 
with respect to the doorway of the naos. but in the same direction as this doorway, 
this sanctuary being oriented east-west. 

7 A large fragment of pink granite, with the name of Thutmoses III, representing 
an ithyphallic Min, was reused on the top of the roof of the sanctuary of Philip 


On the threshold between rooms 4 and 6 is embedded the key 
where the axes of Amun and of Measures transect. 

Room 6 deserves particular attention, since it shows us, among 
other things, the state of this sanctuary under Amenophis III. at 
the place where the present naos was erected, under Alexander the 

There still exist the sockets for the socle of the barque, for the 
wooden naos, for the entry step, and for the twelve posts to support 
a veil surrounding the naos and the four columns of Amenophis III. 
The same is true for the two low ramps for the ascent toward the 
sacred barque (see figs. 37 and 38). 

It is on the site of these columns of Amenophis III that the naos 
of Alexander is built. Let us take note of a tendency to reveal, from 
this time on, what had hitherto been kept secret. This naos is a 
masterpiece for the study of Numbers. The Ptolemaic epoch, mark- 
ing the end of the Egyptian mission, had as its goal "opening the 
doorways" to the teachings of the past, which motivated the actual 
construction of the symbolic doorways that characterize this time. 

The organs of the direct intellect — principally, the pituitary 
gland (hypophesis) and the pineal "eye" (epiphysis) — are located 
in the southern secret sanctuaries. 

The pituitary gland, being located at the entrance of room 1 (the 
central secret sanctuary) is thus considered a doorway — that is to 
say, as a passage (see fig. 35). 

Room 1 contains what physiology defines textually as "the trig- 
onum or four-pillared vault that joins the two horns of Amun." 
There could be no better description of the architectural aspect and 
the function of this sanctuary. 

The starting points of the cornices of the base of the naos are an 
integral part of the southern columns. Everything here bears the 
stamp of a duality. 

In this same room are located the "choroid plexuses" in which a 
mysterious transformation takes place between the blood and the 
cerebrospinal liquid. Medicine holds that blood introduced into the 

Arridheus at Kamak, with the sex organ placed in the direction of the west-east 
axis of the temple. See J. dc Rouge. "Etudes des monuments du massif de Kar- 
nak" in "Melanges d'archeologie egyptienne el assyrienne, vol. 1 (1873), p. 68; G. 
Legrain, "Le logement el le transfer! des barques sacrees," in Bulletin de l'lnstitut 
Francois de Caire. vol. 13 (1917) p. 18. 


[- » 


^ T" 1 J 

Fig. 41. Luxor. Example of transparency between rooms 12 and 5. 


choroid plexuses comes out (by means of dialysis, supposedly) in 
the form of a crystalline liquid, colorless like spring water. The 
figurations in this room also seem to indicate, in these plexuses, at 
least a partial elaboration of a blood-red ferment, with the help of the 
cerebrospinal fluid that comes from the marrow. 

The three southern sanctuaries are separated by walls. This 
separation does not exist in the human head; but inner exchanges, 
as yet unexplained, occur in the organs located in this place, and 
here the walls present one of those typical instances of "trans- 
position" that I mentioned in chapter I. The reading of a partition 
(image and text) remains absolutely incomplete without its complement 
given on the other surface of the same wall. 

A similar instance, but of transparency, is found in the wall 
separating room 12 from room 5. If one superimposes the sagittal 
section of a skull on the plan, one observes, in fact, that this wall 
represents the "lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone" and that the 
olfactory bulb is found in room 5, and the zone of olfactory sensa- 
tion in room 12. The olfactory ramifications pass through the 

lamina cribrosa (see fig. 35). 

However, on the side of the wall in room 12 we find on the sur- 
face the symbols for fabrics, and, in transparency in room 5, the 
"boxes for cloths" (fig. 41). 

The explanations that I provide here are intended to point out 

one of the secrets for the true reading of the texts. 

This inscription of the "cloths" and of the "box for cloths" 
placed in transparency, deserves special attention, in order to 

confirm — with proof of the Egyptian knowledge of the most secret 
functions of the human organism — the method of teaching 

employed by the Ancients, and the way we should endeavor to 

decipher it. 

Among the cerebral organs, the olfactory organ is the oldest; that 
is to say, it is the earliest (like the sun at the eastern horizon). It is 
in room 5, at the point where the hieroglyph for the "box for 

cloths" is found, that the olfactory bulb for the head marked in the 
pavement is located. This room is located exactly at the height 
at which the Uraeus (the figure of the sacred serpent) should 

be placed on the forehead (that is, the eastern external wall of 

room 5). 


Fig. 12. Underside of the brain, showing the olfactory 
bulbs and the olfactory tracts. 

Now, among animals the serpent has the most primitive brain, 
which is typically an olfactory brain. Thus, here there is a rather 
curious "coincidence." 

The wall's characteristic of transparency, placing the hieroglyph for 
cloths of room 12 in the symbol for "box for cloths" represented in 
room 5, would suffice to establish a relationship between the sym- 
bol for cloths and the olfactory bulb. To this is added the charac- 
teristic of what weaving represents as a symbol — that is to say. the 
interlacing of threads, just as the nerves are interlaced so as to make 
perceptible the contacts of the individual with the environment. 
Thus, we frequently find the symbol for cloths in these three secret 

Figure 42 shows clearly what I am suggesting here. The olfactory 
bulb, with the olfactory tract splitting in two. constitutes an organ 
whose image is identical to the symbol for cloths. Since we are 
dealing with a primitive organ, which is extremely important for all 
primitive (sexual) life, it merits using as a model. 



Fig. 43. Hieroglyphic symbol for fabric. 

In figure 34 one can follow the olfactory fibers, some of which 
pass into the white commissure, where they interlace. 

Then the olfactory fibers proceed toward four centers. It is 
entirely probable that the hieroglyphic symbol for fabric is derived 
from the actual act of weaving, when the heddle separates the 
threads of the warp so as to enable the shuttle to pass with the 
thread of the weft. But the image of the olfactory bulb corresponds 
too well, and the choice of the site in the temple in which it is 
inscribed is too significant, not to suggest a desire to emphasize an 
esoteric intention. That is what I wish to point out here. 

The head and neck are in profile up to the walls which indicate 
the clavicles. Here the front view of the chest (hati) begins. 
However, the thyroid and the thymus are still indicated and 

explained on the walls of room 9 (west wall of this room, which is 
located on the east side of the temple). 

It should be noted that the body is seen full face, but the spinal 
column remains located on the west wall. 8 

The columns of the hypostyle symbolize the breasts, representing 
the nutritive aspect, of a lunar nature. This is indicated by the pave- 
ment and by the bases of these columns, which represent a lunar 


s The temple wall that, on the western side, bounds the peristyle court (transept) 
would symbolize the spinal column. It bears the figures of thirteen harnessed 

horses, of which the thirteenth (according to the measurements) falls at exactly the 

height of the first lumbar vertebra. Now, the marrow that traverses the twelve dor- 
sal vertebrae also penetrates the first lumbar vertebra and stops at this point. 


Proceeding from my theory that everything is deliberate, everything 
has meaning, I sought a similar example. I found in the temple 
of Montu, at Karnak, a similar instance of the base of a column 
(fig. 44). 

Fig. 44. Karnak. Temple of Montu. Base cut in a lunar crescent. 

It is thus certain that these, lunar crescents are intentional. 9 

They are clearly marked at Luxor in the north row of the 
columns of the hypostyle, and they continue, diminishing pro- 
gressively, toward the southern rows. Since they occur at exactly 
the level of the breasts of our Microcosmic Man, it means that this 
symbolism is deliberate. 

Confronted with such a set of facts, can one continue to speak of 

The knowledge of the functions of the human body that the 
Egyptologists attribute to the Ancients bears no relation to that 
revealed by the Temple of Luxor. One can get an idea of the 
opinion currently held by referring to a summation of the volumi- 
nous works of Herman Grapow. 10 

Now, if it were to be based solely on the data of current 
philology, the reading of the teaching of ancient Egypt would still 
be only a smattering, for, as this book shows, the thought of the 

’The present explanation does not. however, preclude the possibility of a displace- 
ment of columns at Luxor. 

n Herman Grapow, Ueber die anatomischen Kenntnisse des altagyptishen Aerzte (1935): 
"To say the least, there could not have been any clear idea of the contraction of 
the heart muscles and of the circulation of the blood, since it views as a specific 
cause of illness the excess of blood in the heart. And yet. the Egyptian doctor already 
had "a vague presentiment" that there is some connection between the heart and 
the lungs when he spoke of the blood of the lungs in the heart" (p. 15); "the concept 
'nerves' is lacking (I should like to say ’Of course'), and nothing was yet known of 
the functions of the brain and of the spinal marrow" (p. 15). 


Ancients is expressed by an entire complex of elements founded on 
myth, the meaning of which has never been understood. Egyptology 
must be practiced on the site and not solely in the study. 

It has been said that the Master Builders of the cathedrals ex- 
pressed themselves in stone, and this is true. 

But who has thought to give his full attention both to the meas- 
ures (in order to find in them the meaning of numbers) and to the 
figurations based on pharaonic myth? Who, in this vein, has 
attempted the true reading of the hieroglyphic signs? 

This implies the study of the intentional meaning of each 
document — or, more exactly, the meaning it should have. Thus, 
having noted the separation of the crown of the skull, one should 
try to find out what it means, since this point was emphasized. One 
should not conclude, on the basis of an apparently primary text, 
that the Ancients wished to say what we understand: one must try to 
find out why they expressed themselves thus. 

The Ancients never "popularized" anything; to the uninitiated 
they provided only the minimal useful teaching. The explanation, 
the philosophy, the secret connection between the myth and the 
sciences were the prerogative of a handful of specially instructed 
men. Did not Pythagoras wait twenty years before being admitted 
into the Temple? Did he not, in his own teaching, impose silence 
on pain of death? Therefore, this teaching was not written down. 

Herodotus often mentions the obligation he was under to remain 
silent concerning "sacred" subjects. Therefore, these instructions 
had not been changed. 

Furthermore, the druidical teaching was the privilege of a priest- 
ly class, guardians of the most secret oral traditions of a people. 

People cling obstinately to the "classical" prejudice and, in order 
to defend this thesis, prefer to link the ancient Egyptians with the 
anthropoids! They would even diminish the value that the Greeks 
had in demonstrating the great Knowledge of ancient Egypt. 

Did not the ancient Greeks go to study in the sanctuaries of 
Lower Egypt, as close to the source as possible? They had fewer 
prejudices than their modern champions! When Grapow denies the 
Ancients a knowledge of the nerves, of the circulation of blood, etc., 
we can remind him that Hippocrates, as Iversen recently confirmed 
(Carlsberg Papyrus No. 8, 1939), borrowed extensively from 


pharaonic documents, and did so in B.C. 450. Now, Hippocrates 
spoke of nerves, of blood circulation, and of glands. 

Some will claim that Greece was able to understand, and 
elucidate rationally, what the Ancients had "dimly suspected" or 
known empirically. 

It is certain that the Greek documents that have come down to 
us intact are rare, whereas the Egyptian monuments and texts 
provide inviolate evidence of their concepts and modes of expres- 
sion. What has been transmitted to us through the indirect channel 
is that "analytical" mentality which is so contrary to the approach 
of the ancient Egyptians and was certainly excluded from the Greek 
Mysteries — that mechanical, "rational" mentality guilty of having 
led us to that disaster of which even the most blind now have some 

In conclusion to the foregoing, the pharaonic teaching shows us 
Man composed of three beings: the sexual being, the corporeal 
being, and the spiritual being. Each has its own body and organs. 
These three beings are interdependent, in the flux of juices and the 
nervous influx; the spinal marrow is the column of "fire" that con- 
nects the whole. 

The being properly called "corporeal" is the body — the chest 
and abdomen, where the organs for the assimilation of solids, 
liquids, and air are located. 

The head is the container of the spiritual being, where the blood, 
built up in the body, comes to be spiritualized in order to nourish 
the nervous flux and prepare the "ferments" of the blood and the 

This is a greatly condensed aspect of Man in the image of the 

n I.e., the epiphysis. Galen (A.n. 131) called it the scolecoid, and at that period he 
indicated that it was already being called the epiphysis. Certain writers at the time 
assumed that it had to serve as a sluice for the amount of spirit necessary for the 
maintenance of psychic equilibrium. Descartes considered it the seat of the Soul. 

The most numerous works relate to the study of Saurians and Lacertians, in 
whom the pineal gland truly merits the name "pineal eye." Among the Saurians 


In the head the entire encephalon could be thought of as a foetus 
in gestation: it is bathed by the cerebrospinal fluid, typically 
Amunian (amnion) in character, and the choroid plexuses 
(chorion) bring to this point the nutritive blood, which will itself be 


Contemporary medicine attributes to all these centers very 
detailed descriptive names, derived from Greek or Latin elements. 
No vital link coordinates this purely encyclopedic knowledge. 

One would seek in vain knowledge of this kind and a special 
vocabulary in ancient Egypt. 

The myth is a whole, the synthesis of all science, since it transcribes the 

the parietal part involves the maximum development and shows a crystalline lens, 
a vitreous body, a true retina complete with rods, and cellular elements that can 
be homologated with choroid elements. 

In man, one can picture three structures that combine to form the pineal 
apparatus, in which only the epiphysis shows much development. 

Only since 1900 has the study of this organ become more exact, picturing its 
effect on the genital glands. Today, the supposed visual vestige of the parietal 
apparatus is still assumed, as well as a development among the higher vertebrates 
of the pineal apparatus, which has a genital influence. Thus there are two forma- 
tions, the first of which is atrophying. 

It is thought that epiphysectomy entails a distinct increase in the development of 
the genital gland, and moreover, that the epiphysis has a restraining effect on sex- 
ual development. 

The absence of the effect of an epiphysectomy at an adult age seems to prove 
the predominant role of the pineal gland at the period of puberty. It is thought that 
the pineal gland does not affect the sexual glands directly but probably through 
the intermediary of the hypophysis. 

Anatomically, it is located below the lower lamina of the tela chorioidea and is 
attached by two of its six peduncles to the anterior pillars of the trigonum. The 
wall separating rooms 1 and 7 probably represents the "tela chorioidea." 

Moreover, in room 7, the King is a young boy between seven and twelve years 
of age, and this is the only place where he is represented at this age and accom- 
panied by his mother. 

On the other hand, on the north wall of room 9 (which is located at the height 
of the clavicle), the King has the proportions of an adult; however, the clavicle is 
the first and final point of ossification and indicates the two extreme moments of 
the formation of the body. 

Here I shall point out again that room 9 is the room of conception. 


fundamental Knowledge of the Laws of Genesis that apply to every- 
thing. Thus, the Neters have their significance in medicine as well 
as in astronomy or in theology, which is the metaphysic of the 
Becoming and the Return. 

It is in this vein that their meaning must be sought. 

I must stop my statement here. My goal — which was to set forth 
the indisputable argument that the symbolic presided over the con- 
struction of the Temple of Luxor — has been achieved. 

If I have been forced to expatiate at length on indispensable 
digressions, I have done it only to introduce the reader more easily 
to a mentality that is completely foreign to students of classical 
thought, and to archaeologists in particular. 

I am aware of the criticism that these passages will elicit. A few 
people will realize, however, that I am proposing here a new- 
method for the study of the past; I willingly offer to guide them. 
Alas, it is not to great numbers of people that I direct this essay. 

Summary of Principles 

It is said that "Man is of Nature; Man is in Nature, and Nature 
and Man are One." Now, man cannot create — that is to say, make 
something out of Nothing — any more than Nature can. Man is 
identified with Nature, and any "creation of the mind" (implying 
human thought), which is but an assemblage of existing parts, is 
the result of a state of Consciousness that makes the connection 
between the qualities and possibilities of the Universe on the one 
hand, and their organic summation in the individual on the other. 

Man is the individualization of all the functions, affinities, and 


powers of the Universe; and Consciousness is the Measure of 
individualization, rendering actual that which is virtual in the 
cosmic harmony. 

Man is the Microcosm, Consciousness is the Temple in Man. Indi- 
vidualization has incorporated in the organism the "functions of 
genesis," separating creative Thought into Time and Space; 
Consciousness must unite them anew. 

Thus Consciousness — the Temple in Man — comes from the 
knowledge of the elements of genesis, that is to say, from the sanc- 
tuaries, hence from the knowledge of the spiritual bond that unites 
them. In other words, there is the knowledge of Good and Evil, and 
the knowledge of Unity; the intelligence of the "mortal," which 
separates like the scythe, and the Intelligence of the permanent, 
which unifies. 



The Crossing: 
Egyptian Mentality 

THE FEW basic philosophical elements that I have briefly reviewed 
in an effort to explain the method of the Ancients for applying 
architectural symbolism, are not sufficient to explain the basis of 
the mentality of pharaonic Egypt. 

I have said that this mentality presented itself as vitalist, but this 
epithet does not simply mean that a spiritual or metaphysical 
principle presides over Life. That would be a definition in the 
occidental spirit, consistent with a direct mentality, which I call 
"mechanical" because each element of the thought is given directly 
and meshes with another thought to formulate a conclusion within 
set limits. I also call this mentality "mechanical" because it seeks 
to make every notion objective and attributes all the value to the 
"thing," to the arrested idea — that is to say, the idea framed in 
time and space. 

The pharaonic mentality is typically indirect. A defined form is 
used to evoke the Idea of this form — that is to say, the abstract 
complex that presides over this defined form. 

The best way to make myself understood would be the following 

If, in a fairly dark room we stare at a spot of bright light for 
a while, when we close our eyes, we shall see, in lieu of this 
bright spot, the same spot, only dark. Similarly, if we stare at 
a bright color, for example, green, when we close our eyes, we shall 
see the exactly complementary shade of red. 

The Occidental would say that light and the color green are the 
reality. The ancient Egyptian would say that the reality is the inner 
vision, outside of the object. 


This example can also be used to explain what I mean by vital 
reaction. The concept "vitalist" implies, for the Ancients, the evi- 
dence of the vital phenomenon as based on the principle of 

We find a very similar mental disposition in China, at least in 
the ancient China still imbued with the Wisdom of old. 

There is a valid psychological reason behind this manner of 
thought. The fact of expressing a desire very easily provokes a sub- 
conscious resistance or doubt. Now, there is more power in subcon- 
scious doubt than in conscious belief: hence the instinctive and 
unconscious race to deny — or prevent — the production or realiza- 
tion of what was desired. 

But the reason for this "indirect mentality" among the ancient 

Egyptians is based on the certain fact that everything in Nature 
(which is alive) is provoked by the action of the complement. This 
creates the crossing 1 and the play of resistance. 

Before one can inhale deeply, one must first exhale all the air in 
the lungs. This would be the vital reaction, the reaction of the 

organism, which is its real action and not the voluntary action 
imposed on it. 

Similarly, the decomposing action of death brings about new life 
in organic matter: hence the paradox, that we die the moment the 

cells of our bodies cease dying, for it is their constant death that 
supports life — that is to say, regeneration. 

However, this is still only the physical aspect of reaction. For the 
mental aspect and consciousness, the reality of man is aroused by 
provoking the reaction through the brutal, concrete fact. This 

reality, which is in us, is measured by the state of consciousness or 
of intellectual culture. We react to the extent that is fitting for us, 
and this will be a factual reality, whereas the thought imposed on 
us remains outside of us; that is to say, it penetrates no further 
than into our memory. And only what we have experienced (one 
might say "suffered") impregnates our being and can modify our 
innate consciousness. 

The reasoning could be formulated generally as follows: 

1 Crossing is indispensable for any nervous "sensation." thus for all consciousness. 
That we see this crossing applied in their mentality again suggests that the ancient 
Egyptians had a profound knowledge of the human body and the nervous system. 


We become aware — that is to say, we can qualify a thing or an 
idea — only by means of comparison. The extreme comparison for 
Being would be Non-being. For us a thing exists only because it 
can, in the final analysis, not be. Now, presence is susceptible to 
changes; but absence — non-being — is immutable. 

This reasoning of absurdity however, underlies any philosophy of 
Unity — that is to say, "God." Within this Non-being of Nature, 
which comprises all "things," is summarized like a seed — every- 
thing that can be. 

Ancient Egypt accords the entire value to this Cause and not the 
object that has emanated from it. When the Ancients draw a figure, 
it is not the figure they look at, but what they are projecting of 
themselves onto this figure; physically, they view this figure as a 
shadow, a silhouette against the light of its absence. They detect its 

When they draw a geometrical figure, it is not this figure which 
interests them, but the inexorable Law that prescribes it and the 
inevitable consequence that this law provokes. Thus, geometry 
takes on the same living characteristic of life as the images they 
carve or draw. 

Summary of Principles 

"The light shineth in darkness and the 
darkness comprehendeth it not." (John 1:5) 

Affirmation and negation are compensatory and together create 
nothingness. The cross, once drawn, effaces: it says yes and no at 
the same time. But negation denies itself, and affirmation can only 
affirm itself. Simple crossing effaces; double crossing denies the 
negation and affirms the affirmation. The crossed fists of the royal 
mummy is a death gestating the second crossing (indicated by the 
scepters), which is the resurrection. This is the death of one form 


for the life of another state in which the mortal, the negation, is 

I will say: to create is to make something from nothing; thus, 
this nothing is virtually this thing. The created thing will be the 
negation of nothing, the affirmation of the corporeal form. To 
negate this nothing is to pass from the virtual to the actual. But the 
negation of nothing is absurd; hence negation can only apply to the 
thing which is transitory, which is able not to be. Thus, the nega- 
tion of the present bodily form is the affirmation of its virtual, 
indcstructable reality. 

That which is, is able "not to be" in its present form; but its 
Idea, or virtual reality, does not cease to be, as a possibility, imma- 
nent in the general Cause whence the whole emanates. 

Is the present form necessary? It matters little — its possibility- 
exists; it will be if its void exists, if its absence imposes itself. 

"There will be Light if the darkness feels its absence." The Con- 
sciousness of the absence of Light will create the call that will make the 
light shine. This is the true prayer. It is the evocation. This is the 
pharaonic mentality. 



The Egyptian 

Canon for a Standing Man 

DEFINITION'S should be used only as a point of comparison. It is " 
thus that the canon, as the principle of proportions for the con- 
struction of the figure, should be viewed. This allows one to note all 
the variations and distortions in the representations in order to 
know the Idea that is being expressed. 

The Canon in Terms of Its Relationship 
to the System of Quadrature by 19 Units 

E. Mackay 1 notes that in Egyptian Quadrature a line passes in 
front of the ear and back knee, and ends, on the base line, at a 
point located one square behind the big toe of the back foot. 
Another important line, immediately in front of the preceding one, 
passes through the middle of the iris of the eye and ends at the big 
toe of the back foot. 

The line that passes in front of the car is thus found on the static 
axis of the standing and walking man. On this line are the semicir- 
cular canals of the inner ear in which are located the sense of orien- 
tation and stability. 

The axis of movement passes through the eye: the eyes are 
luminaries, the eyes guide. One goes toward what one is looking at, 
and it is on the big toe of the back foot that one places one's weight 
in order to advance. 

L. Mackay, "Proportion Squares on Tomb Walls in the Theban Necropolis," in 
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 4 (17):77. 


Two methods of quadrature are known. 2 

The first method divides the height of the entire man into 19 

The second divides the height of the entire man in 22 units, or 
sometimes 22 and a fraction. 

The multiplicity of other divisions are not to be trusted. They 
have nothing to do with the canon; their aim is to locate measures, 
or they serve as symbols. In certain instances — as in the division by 
7 units — it is a matter of simplification for the placement of the 

outline (when, for example, one wishes to make the total height 

equal to seven heads). 

The method of 19 squares, which is quite inconvenient for the 
division of a number of digits that is a multiple of 24 or 28, is 

nonetheless the method that corresponds best to geometrical con- 

struction with phi and provides the explanation of the pharaonic 

A square is constructed whose side equals the height of the man 
including the crown of the skull; this height counts as 19 (see fig. 

The crown of the skull which counts as 1, is then removed; there 
remain 1 8 for the height, excluding the crown. 

To the width of the square is added the height of the crown, giv- 
ing the fathom — that is, 20 units. 

Then, to determine the personage's navel, the height is considered 
as if it were that of the man including the crown; this height of 18 is 
divided by phi to locate the navel slightly above 11 units, starting 
from the soles of the feet. 

This is the general scheme, revealed by the use of the number 
19; but in reality it is necessary to observe that the coefficient C — 
that is to say, the value of the crown — is variable and constitutes the 
personal module. 

According to the measurements recorded at Luxor, and based on 
a great number of other monuments, the quadrature would permit 
only the following measurements to be located almost uniformly: 

Length of the foot = 3 units (unit of the widths of the com- 


Height of the knees = 5 1/4 to 6 units (between which is located 
the kneecap), 

2 R. Lepsius, Denkmaler (1897) p. 233-38. 


Fig. 45. System of 19 squares, applied to a figure in room 20 of the Temple of 

Height of the shoulders =16 units (beginning of the neck). 

Height of the forehead =18 units (line of the hair piece). 

Height of the vertex or the uraeus =19 units. 

Other essential points — such as the apron, the belt, the navel, the 
breast, the corselet, the necklace, the chin — correspond either to a 
personal proportion or to the desire to indicate a very definite 

The proportions most frequently encountered in all the averages 
established by contemporary anthropometry for the ratio between 
man's height and the spread of his arms are 1.03 and 1.045. 3 

3 Encydopedie Francaise, vol. 4, 56, 5. 

a. Average proportions of a European of average height (1.65 m), calculated by J. 
Denicker, according to the tables of P. Topinard: with the height taken as 100, the 
head =13; span = 104.4 


The ratio 19:20 can only be an "approximation"; the headband, 
which must not be confused with the delimitation of the forehead, 
gives the "personal module." 

This "module,"' in the adult subjects of this temple, is indeed 1.03 
and 1.045. 


To cast some light on the refinement of this system of quadrature 
in the Egyptian canon, I provide here the same face divided 
according to the method of 19 squares (fig. 46) and according to 
the golden section (fig. 47). Calculations prove that in these two 
divisions the forehead and the upper edge of the headband coincide 
within hundredths, if the top of the headband is placed at 18 1/2 

Thus we find it possible to make the module, the play of the phi, 
and the play of 19 squares coincides very closely. 

The system of 19 squares gives the broadest approximation of phi 
that is adequate in practical terms. This facilitated the technician's 
work, and then the Master could make rectifications without reveal- 
ing the essential functions. 

For example, the navel falls at 11 squares, starting from the soles 
of the feet, 4 but it should be located at 11.4 in the case cited 
earlier.' Such a rectification can be made unerringly by a practiced 

b. Main anthropometrical characteristics of the average man according to 
Quetelet in Anthropometric (average calculated from 30 Belgian men of 25 
to 30 years of age, selected according to an aesthetic criterion): total height = 
168 cm; height of the navel above the ground = 101.5 cm; spread of arms = 
173.1 cm. Hambidge, quoted by Manila C. Ghyka, Esthetique des Proportions dans to 
Nature et dans les Arts, p. 275. Average most frequently encountered for the spread 
of the arms = 1 .045 for a height of 100. 

4 The navel thus divides the height 18 in the ratio 11:7 = 1.57142 = half of 
"technical pi”, or 22/7, generally attributed to Archimedes. 

With quadrature in 22 units (the head being contained 7 times in the body), we 
find a direct play with this technical pi. 

5 The personage in room 20, taken as an example, has as his personal coefficient 
19/1.03 = 18.446 for his height excluding the crown of the skull; this measure- 
ment is indicated by the upper line of the headband, and his navel is located at 
1 8.446/pi = 1 1 .4 from the soles of his feet. 


Fig. 46. Detail of the application of the method of 19 squares to a face in room 20 
of the Temple of Luxor. 

eye, which explains the many still visible "corrections" often found 
on the outlines. 

For the coefficient C we round off the number to the nearest 
thousandth to simplify the reading. But, proof exists in the plan, of 
more thorough exactitude, corresponding to the real functions, 
which a specialist can easily discern. 


Fig. 47. Study of the profile (fig. 46) divided according to the Golden Section (see 
also figs. 7, 8, and 9.). 


A Study of the Proportions between the Head 
Represented in the Pavement and the Body established 


This study shows us two rhythms in the measure of the man of 

1. The measure of the eorporeal man, which gives for the 
length of the temple, 140 fathoms, is the man excluding the 
crown of the skull (FP), and would give 142 fathoms for the 
man including the crown (TP; see fig. 48). 6 

2. For the head or "control" part of this body, there is a 
different measure, whose rhythm would give 265.74-265.83 m 
as the total measure of the man including the crown of the 
skull (TP). 

The greatest length of the temple, from the south wall to the 
west pylon, is 258 m (+10 cm), which corresponds to 140 
meridian fathoms at 0°. 

1 . The proportion most widely adopted for the size of the 
human head is 13/100 the height; the head is then contained 7.692 
times in the total height. 

In the personages represented in the bas-reliefs at Luxor, this 
proportion varies between 7 and 7.5 heads, depending on the inten- 

In trying to find out on what basis the complete personage 
should be founded, I had to go along with the indications given by 
the head in the pavement, and I got 18 fathoms for the length FM. 
Taking the crown of the skull as 2 fathoms, this would give 20 

6 When speaking of the measurements of the temple in relation to those of the 
man, I shall adopt the following conventions: man without the crown of the skull 
= FP, and head without the crown of the skull = FM, man with the crown of the 
skull = TP. and head with the crown of the skull = TM (fig. 48). 


u — - p ■ ' » - 

JM **.* */7f * \J j . 

Fig. 48. Diagram of the Temple of Luxor showing the ages of man. 


fathoms for the head (TM); furthermore, since the total length of 

the temple (FP) equals 140 fathoms, the head would thus be 
contained 7 times in this length and 7.1 times in the theoretical 

length TP. 

Hence, the symphisis pubis should be located halfway along the 
total length TP (measurement verified); this point lies in the 
thickness of the south wall separating the court of Amenophis III 

from the colonnade of Amun. 

This being so, the eye in the pavement is too high for a figure 
whose geometric outline divides the face into two equal parts, pass- 
ing through the upper eyelid. The half-head of 10 fathoms would 

be located at the midpoint of the eye. 

However, the entire '"skeleton" of the personage corresponds 
strictly to the proportions of a man whose height comprises 7.1 
heads, as is shown in plates based on medical data (see fig. 1-2). 

It is indeed this measurement, FM, that governs the general 

2. In considering only the head in relation to the rest of the 

temple, we are dealing, then, with a man whose head, slightly too 

large, gives precisely the proportion of a boy before puberty, who has 
reached the age of 12 at the maximum. 

This is confirmed by the fact that the King is represented as a 

child (between 7 and 12 years) with his mother only in sanctuary 

7, where the pineal gland is located. It is this gland which changes 
at this age, with the awakening of the intelligence in harmony with 
the sexual apparatus, in order to pass from the "pineal eye" phase 
into the epiphysis state. 2 * * * * 7 

Moreover, this temple is said to be the one in which the King 
spent his childhood. 

Let us recall, in the Gospel of St. Luke (2:41-49), the journey to 
Jerusalem of the child Jesus with his parents, when he had reached 
his twelfth year, and how, while wandering in the temple, he 
astonished the doctors with his intelligence and knowledge. 

7 See the note on the epiphysis in chapter VI. p. 107. 


The two rhythms of the Temple of Luxor show us: 

a. That by the overly large head in the pavement, this temple 
indicates a definite age of 12 years; and that, however, all the 
stages of growth (past and future) of this child are transcribed 
in measurements in the different stages of the architecture. 

b. A geometrical action that makes the defined Measures, the 
canon, and the two personal coefficients of the personages of 
7.1 and 6.5 heads contained in the development of the temple 

(A) Actual natural growth, shown by the measurements of the temple. 
Daffner gives 50.6 cm for a newborn infant whose future height 
will be 166.5 cm; now, the relation between these two measure- 
ments is 3.2906. 

Moreover, the Westcar Papyrus, a prophetic text, which is at- 
tributed to the Fourth Dynasty and concerns the child King who is 
to become head of the line of the Fifth Dynasty, assigns to the new- 
born a cubit's length; this relationship between a cubit and the 
height of an adult man constructed according to the fathom and 
the perfect "canon" would be exactly 3.274. 

Finally, the relation between the future length of the temple (TP) 
and that of the platform (FB) is 3. 274. 8 

Furthermore, the total length of the newborn is equivalent to 4 
heads, 9 and the head of the child King comprises the south sanc- 
tuaries and room 12, thus all the vital centers whose positions 

8 In fact: 261:70 m/3.274 = 79.93 m as the length of the platform, which actually 
measures 79.60 m and 80 m along the east and west sides respectively, the differ- 
ence being due to the slant. 

9 a. The proportion of the head at different ages is based on Quetelet's table, 
except for the 7. 1 heads, which is particularly Egyptian. 

b. The size of the child at various ages is based on the tables of Doctors Variot 
and Chaumet (the result of 4,400 measurements made in the schools of Paris), 
compared with a table of Landois, which gives the same findings. 


remain stable in the course of man's development (see fig. 49). 
During man's growth this center does not move, as if the central 
organs of the intellect located in the sanctuaries, were the fixed point 
around which the entire body oscillates. 

The covered temple represents the newborn infant. 

The second stage of construction includes the peristyle court, 

hence, the child at 2, or 2 1/2, since, according to tradition (and con- 
firmed by anthropometry), he has reached half his total future 
height — the "age of the abdomen," according to Thooris. 

The third stage of the construction adds the nave, and the child 

is then 7 or 8 years old — the "age of respiration," says Thooris; 

thus, the capitals of the columns of the nave are open corollas. 

Amenophis III ceased construction at this point. Ramses added 

on the court and the pylons; and there we find the final phases of 

Toward 12 years, the child attains about five-sixths of his future 
height, which brings us to the west door of the court of Ramses. 

The dimension of the head of this 12-year-old child is indicated 
on the plan by the length FM, and the ratio between the head and 
the height of the child (FJ) is 6.481. 10 

It should be noted that it is by the west door of the court of 
Ramses that both the barque and the princes enter the temple, as 
the bas-reliefs indicate. 

Finally, with the pylons, we find the proportions of a young man 
of about 18 years of age, whose head (TM) is contained in TP 7.1 

All of the foregoing is based solely on the play of 140 and 142 
fathoms for the lengths FP and TP of the temple. Now the face in 
itself comes into play; while, enlarging the personage, it will still, in 
its final proportion, bring us back to the age of 12. 

(B) Geometric Play 

As is shown on the geometric outline of the face according to the 
canon (fig. 46), the crown of the skull marked off by the headband 
represents 1/phi 2 of the height of a head with value 2, so that the 
length FM equals phi. 

Moreover, we have seen that, for a personage whose height 
10 We see that the relationship FJ/FM (that is to say. 215 m/33.17 m) = 6.481. 


Fig. 49. Luxor. The newborn infant in the covered temple. 

measures 7.1 heads (which is the case for the skeleton superim- 
posed on the general plan), the perfect coefficient of the module is 

Now, the figure traced on the ground demonstrates that the 
south wall F represents the upper edge of the headband. Thus, the 
length FP must be multiplied by 1.03 11 in order to get the theoret- 
ical length of the man suggested by the face in the pavement. 

The paving stone that marks the upper eyelid is at a distance of 
20.50 m from the "key" at the crossing of the axis delimiting the 
bottom of the face (the chin). Now, 

20.50 m x/phi= 33.17 m = 

18 fathoms pavement. 

Fie ad in the FM 

Head of the 12-year-old child 

FP x 1.03 = 258 m x 1.03 = 265.74 m. 


The face traced on the ground thus belongs to a head 41 m long, 
of which the crown of the skull measures 7.83 m, to which we 
should add 258 m in order to have the complete man, or 265.83 m. 
We may compare this last result with the application of the module 
(265.74 m). 

Thus, there is geometrical coincidence, but the head is included 
in the total length only 6.48 1 12 times, which brings us back to the 
proportion of the 12-year-old-child for the head in the pavement. 


A final proof for the measurements of the temple and their rec- 
tification (double rhythm) is given by the west wall of sanctuary 1 
(fig. 50) and the royal figure B. 

Here we are dealing with a royal personage without a navel, hence 
with a creation and not a procreation through woman — that is to 
say, in keeping with the principle of the Kamutef. 

The proportion between the head and the height of the body 

12 Actually, 41 ra x 6.481 = 265.74 m, and 6.481 is the ratio of the head and the 
height previously found for the 12-year-old child. 

Let us note that if we were to multiply the size 265.74 m by 1.2, which will give 
the length of the adult, we should get 318.888 in, that is to say, half of 637.776 m, 
or 1/20,000 of Hayford's semiaxis with a difference of 628 m less. 

According to Bulletin Geodesique, no. 7 (1925) p. 540 ff: 

Until 1925 geodesy used the following values for the earth's semiaxis: 

Bessel's semiaxis: 6,377.397 m 

Clark's semiaxis: 6,378,206 m (1886) 

Clark's semiaxis: 6,378,249 m (1880) 

Hayford's semiaxis: 6,378,388 m 

In the temple we find that the mean between 265.74 m and 265.83 m x 24,000 
= 6,378,840 m. 

In 1925, the geodesy section of the International Geodetic and Geophysic Union 
adopted Hayford's ellipsoid, which gives a semiaxis of 6,378,388 m. 

In comparing the above measurements, we find a difference of 991 m between 
Bessel's and Hayford's parameters and only 452 m between Hayford's semiaxis 
and that calculated from the temple's data. 

This measurement is so close to the geodetic datum that one might be led 
astray. However, the point here is not a geodetic calculation; we are in fact con- 
fronted with a coincidence — probably intentional. We know, on the other hand, that 
there does exist a function connected with geodetic calculations that gives, on a 
philosophic basis, amazingly precise details. 


Fig. 50. Luxor. West wall of sanctuary 1. 

changes with age. If one wishes to change the age of a personage 
on a bas-relief, one can modify only the size of the head and not 
the size of the legs, which are limited by the base line. This is 
exactly the problem of the temple that we find explained in the 
aforementioned bas-relief. 

Here we see five kings, just as there are five basic changes of axis 
and five ages indicated. 

The first king, to the north (A), is the smallest; his height com- 
prises about 7.1 heads. 

The last king, to the south (E), is the largest of all; his height 
from the ground to the vertex comprises only about 6.5 heads. 

The second king (B) has two very clearly determined measure- 
ments of height: from the ground to the vertex, and from the 
ground to the head of the uraeus. In addition, the outlines of two 
superimposed faces can be seen: the original profile of the head was 
rectified in such a way that the old profile subsists as evidence and 
as a point of comparison with the new profile (figs. 51 and 52). 

The original face gave the profile a size corresponding to 6.5 
heads within the total height, hence the proportions of a 12-year- 
old child; the rectified profile reduces the size of the face, which is 
then contained 7.1 times in the height defined by the uraeus, and 


the proportion becomes that of an adult man of 18, according to 
the Egyptian canon. Thus we have in this bas-relief the representa- 
tion of the temple itself, and this bas-relief is found in the place 
that corresponds physiologically to the profound transformations at 
the age of puberty. This is one more proof that the entire principle 
of growth and the transformation of the microcosmic man serve as 
the symbolic basis for this temple. 

The summary of the measures of this arrangement of proportions 
is provided below. 


We should find, in the general dimensions of the temple (con- 
sidered as a man) an application of the Egyptian "canon"; that is 
to say, we should be able to divide the length of the temple (TP) 
by 19 and get a unit of measurement that applies to the whole of 
the architecture. 

Moreover, if the west wall of sanctuary 1 truly indicates the pro- 
gram of the two rhythms of the temple, we should find there indi- 
cations or confirmations of these measures. 

Now, in fact, in order to find the posited lengths of the man in 
the temple parallel to the axis of Measures, we must take the 
height indicated by the first king to the north, King A (fig. 50), and 
multiply it by 19 times 10, and we shall find the proposed length 
for the measurement TP, containing the personage of 7.1 heads. 
Then we must take the height indicated by the last king to the 
south. King E (fig. 50), and multiply it by 19 times 10, and we 
shall have the predicted dimension for the personage of 6.5 heads in 
the temple. 

These figures not only confirm the hypothesis of the two rhythms, but 
specify their dimensions in such a way that by simply multiplying the height 
of King A by 10 we get the unit of measurement that can be used to place the 
entire temple in a grid, the temple being considered as a personage. This unit 
multiplied by 19 gives the height of the 18-year-old man, and consequently 
the length of the temple (TP). 

In sum. Kings A and E indicate, by their proportions and measurements, 
the two rhythms of the temple, viewed along the axis of Measures. King B 
shows the application of this double rhythm. 


Fig. 51. Luxor. West wall of sanctuary 1. The two profiles of King B. 



The elements observed in the Temple of Luxor prove: 

1. That the pharaonic temple has a didactic purpose; hence every 
detail has its import. 

2. That the entire value is accorded to the teaching; the technical 
aspect is subordinated to this aim. 

3. That there is, in the inscription by means of texts and figura- 
tions, a method for translating a philosophically ordained thought. 

4. That symbolism is the method of transcription of the thought of 
the Ancient Egyptians, in writing and in figuration as well as in the 

5. That there is a precalculated program, realized through Time by 
successive Kings, heirs of the tradition. 

6. That the monument is constructed (contrary to our current prin- 
ciples of architecture) on several axes; that each axis has a mean- 
ing, and that this meaning dictates the meaning of the parts subor- 
dinate to it. 

7. That there is, in pharaonic Egypt, geodetic, astronomical, and 
physiological knowledge surpassing that which Egyptology has 
hitherto been able to concede.